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Anaesthetics

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An anesthetic (or anaesthetic, see spelling differences) is a drug that causes anesthesia—reversible loss of sensation. These drugs are generally administered to facilitate surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. Many are rarely used outside of anesthesia, although others are used commonly by all disciplines. Anesthetics are categorized in to two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body while maintaining consciousness. Combinations of anesthetics are sometimes used for their synergistic and additive therapeutic effects, however, adverse effects may also be increased.

A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anaesthetic practice. Many are rarely used outside of anaesthesia, although others are used commonly by all disciplines. Some of the prominent ones include:

  • local anaesthetics
  • general anaesthetics
    • inhalational anaesthetics
      • volatile anaesthetics
        • desflurane
          sevoflurane
          isoflurane
          halothane
          enflurane
          methoxyflurane
      • nitrous oxide
      • xenon
    • intravenous anaesthetics
      • propofol
        etomidate
      • barbiturates
        • methohexital
          thiopentone/thiopental
      • benzodiazepines
        • midazolam
        • diazepam
      • ketamine
  • analgesics
    • opioids
      • morphine
      • fentanyl
      • alfentanil
        sufentanil
        remifentanil
      • methadone
      • meperidine / pethidine
    • NSAIDs
  • muscle relaxants
    • depolarising muscle relaxants
      • succinylcholine, also known as suxamethonium
    • nondepolarising (curare-like) muscle relaxants
      • atracurium
        cisatracurium
        vecuronium
        rocuronium
        mivacurium
        tubocurarine (see mislabelled article “turbocurnanine” under “search.” Can this article be placed correctly under tubocurarine also?)
        pancuronium bromide
  • vasoconstrictors, also known as vasopressors
    • phenylephrine
    • ephedrine
    • metaraminol
  • antiemetics: phenothiazines, e.g.: prochlorperazine, promethazine, cyclizine;
  • butyrophenones, e.g.: droperidol; antihistamines, e.g.: dimenhydrinate (old); newer agents: ondansetron and tropisetron, and granisetron; steroids, e.g.: dexamethasone; and lastly, metoclopramide (variable efficacy).

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia.

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