Occasionally, the antidote for a certain toxin is manufactured by injecting the toxin into an animal in compact doses, the resulting antibodies being extracted from the animals’ blood. The venom created by some snakes, spiders, as well as other venomous animals is typically treatable by the use of these antivenoms, although a quantity do lack one particular, and also a bite or sting from such an animal typically results in death.
Nonetheless, some toxins have no known antidote. For instance, the poison ricin, which is made from the waste byproduct of castor oil manufacture, has no antidote, and as a result is frequently fatal if it enters the human body in enough quantities.
Ingested poisons are regularly treated by the oral administration of activated charcoal, which adsorbs the poison, and after that it can be flushed from the digestive tract, removing a large part of the toxin.
Poisons which are injected into the body (including these from bites or stings from venomous animals) are often treated by the use of a constriction band which limits the flow of lymph and/or blood to the location, as a result slowing circulation from the poison about the body.
Poison and Toxic Signs
- Acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning is given N-acetylcysteine as the antidote.
- Anticholinergic poisoning is given Physostigmine sulfate as the antidote.
- Benzodiazepine poisoning is given flumazenil as the antidote.
- Carbon monoxide poisoning is given oxygen as the antidote.
- Anticholinesterase poisoning is given atropine sulfate and Pralidoxime chloride 2-PAM as the antidote.
- Cyanide poisoning is given amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, and thiosulfate as the antidote.
- Digoxin poisoning is given anti digoxin fab fragments as the antidote.
- Ethylene glycol poisoning is given ethanol or fomepizole as the antidote.
- Extrapyramidal signs poisoning is given diphenhydramine hydrochloride and benztropine mesylate as the antidote.
- Heavy metal poisoning is given chelators, calcium disodium edetate (EDTA), dimercaprol (BAL), penicillamine, and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, succimer) as the antidote.
- Iron poisoning is given deferoxamine mesylate as the antidote.
- Isoniazid poisoning is given pyridoxine as the antidote.
- Methanol poisoning is given ethanol or fomepizole as the antidote.
- Methemoglobinemia poisoning is given methylene blue as the antidote.
- Opioid poisoning is given naloxone hydrochloride as the antidote.
- Warfarin poisoning is given vitamin K phytonadione and fresh frozen plasma as the antidote.
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