Logicism

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Logicism is an attitude towards mathematics according to which it is an extension of logic and therefore all mathematical concepts and theories are reducible to logic. If this program were feasible, it could support logical positivism in particular, and reductionism … Read More

Criticism of translation

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Marc Bloch made the following criticism in The Historian’s Craft: ”It would still be annoying to see historians encumbering their observations with foreign expressions like those authors of rustic novels who, by their use of provincialisms, slip into a jargon … Read More

Ancient philosophy

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(Marble bust of Roman origin (1st century BC) representing Socrates, copy of a lost bronze (by Lysippus).) The term ancient philosophy generally designates the philosophy that was born in the 7th century BC, and which developed with Socrates and Plato, … Read More

Nominalism

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Nominalism is a philosophical doctrine which considers that concepts are human constructions and that the names which relate to them are only conventions of language. Beings are not intrinsically carriers of the concepts by which we apprehend them. For example, … Read More

Theoretical philosophy

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Logic Logic is not concerned with concrete content, but with the laws of consistency. She asks, based on which rules out certain conditions specific ( “premises”) result or can not be drawn conclusions. To that extent, it addresses the basis of all argument- based science. In earlier … Read More

Historical authenticity in performance (Historically informed performance)

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The expression historically informed performance (HIP) designates a musical interpretation movement developed in the 20th century and more particularly during the second half of the 20th century. Seeking to get closer to the musical tastes of the time and the … Read More

Physicalism

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Physicalism, a term coined by Rudolf Carnap, is the thesis, or doctrine, that all knowledge is reducible, at least theoretically, to statements of physics. The human and social sciences, just like the natural sciences, which each have their specific vocabulary … Read More

Problem of induction

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The problem of induction (also: Humean problem or Hume problem) is a basic problem of epistemology. It relates to the question of whether and when a conclusion by inducing individual cases to a generally applicable law is permissible. It was first mentioned by David Hume around 1740 . Although the problem of induction was … Read More

Video gaming for the elderly

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On December 10 2020, Barbara Rawlings of Dorset, UK celebrated her 106th birthday. Congratulating her on national radio, the BBC’s Graham Norton remarked: “It does seem a little cruel that you’ve stayed alive for 106 years…. For this.” We all … Read More

Hallucination

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(My eyes at the moment of the apparitions by August Natterer, a German artist who created many drawings of his hallucinations.) A hallucination is defined, in psychiatry, as a sensory perception without the presence of a detectable stimulus: for example … Read More

Equal opportunities

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As a social value, equal opportunities is a complex concept. The term equality is, in fact, polysemous, and therefore subject to interpretation. Objectivity in the definition given in this article will therefore be relative. Note also the ambiguity of the … Read More

Audiobooks

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An audiobook is a book or text that has been recorded to be read aloud; it can also be the result of the use of speech synthesis. The relationship to “reading” is modified by the use of hearing, rather than … Read More

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