Schrödinger equation
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Schrödinger equation, developed by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1925, is a fundamental equation in quantum mechanics. It describes the evolution over time of a massive non-relativistic particle, and thus fulfills the same role as the fundamental relation of … Read More

Philosophical analysis of faith
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(Allegory and symbols of faith in Christianity.) Faith, according to the most common meaning, is the disposition to accept as true information that is not directly known, based on the authority of others (teacher, friend, a document, etc.). In the … Read More

Scientific laws
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A scientific law is a scientific proposition that affirms a constant relationship between two or more variables or factors, each of which represents a property or measurement of specific systems. It is also defined as a constant and invariable rule and norm of things, arising from its first cause or its qualities and conditions. It … Read More

Propositional logic
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Propositional logic (propositional calculus, statement logic, sentential calculus, sentential logic, or sometimes zeroth-order logic) is part of the mathematical logic. Its purpose is the study of the logical relations between “propositions” and defines the formal laws according to which the … Read More

Special theory of relativity
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Special Theory of Relativity (or Special relativity) is the formal theory elaborated by Albert Einstein in 1905 in order to draw all the physical consequences of Galilean relativity and the principle according to which the speed of light in a … Read More

Knowledge in philosophy
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In philosophy, it is studied above all knowledge in the sense of the state of the one who knows something. The known things themselves are also knowledge, but this second notion is not that which interests the philosophers. Likewise, knowledge, … Read More

Scientific instruments
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A scientific instrument is an instrument used in science to acquire data, from nanoscale to macroscopic scales. These are mostly measuring instruments (spectrometer for example) or observation (polarizing microscope for example) or, more and more, both at once. Characterizations An … Read More

Mind–body problem – Dualism – Descartes
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 (Is there a spirit in the machine?) The mind-body problem raises the question of the relationship between the human body, the brain in particular, and the mind. Although this problem has existed almost since the beginning of philosophy (see Plato), … Read More

Atom
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(Representation of a helium-4 atom with, appearing pink in the center, the atomic nucleus and, in gradient of gray all around, the electronic cloud. The helium-4 nucleus, enlarged on the right, is formed of two protons and two neutrons.) An … Read More

Civil disobedience
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(Sebastian Loscher: Allegory of Justice (1536)) Civil disobedience is the public and accepted refusal to submit to a law, regulation, organization or power deemed unfair by those who challenge it, while making this refusal a peaceful weapon of combat. The … Read More

Taxonomies
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(Phylogenetic trees have the shape of dendrograms, each node of the dendrogram corresponds to a clade. ) Taxonomy (from the Greek: ταξις, taxis, ordering and νομος, nomos, norm or rule) is, in its most general sense, the discipline of classification. … Read More

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, by Immanuel Kant
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(Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (German: Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals), by Immanuel Kant … Read More

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