Family resemblance

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(Family resemblance – It seems that there is nothing in common among Bridge and Soccer, but we conceder them both as games because they have many things in common with other games like paired Tennis.) A family resemblance, or family likeness, a … Read More

Philosophical aspects of pandemics

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Throughout human history, there have been a number of pandemics. The most devastating pandemic was the plague known as the Black Death, which killed about 200 million people in the 14th century, (Philipkoski 2015) and the 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish … Read More

Philosophical zombie

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In the contemporary vocabulary of the philosophy of mind, by zombie (philosophical zombie or p-zombie) is meant a being physically and externally indistinguishable from a conscious being, by his behavior as by his physical constitution, but who, however, has no … Read More

What came first: the virus or the cell?

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Viruses reproduce only inside the living cells of organisms, (Wu 2020) being known so far more than 6,000 species of viruses. (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 2020) When it infects a cell, the viruses force it to rapidly … Read More

Unsolved problems in physics, in theory and observations

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This is a list of some of the great unsolved problems in physics. During the long-term process of evolving theories according to the scientific method, there is an intermediary phase between two periods of stability where questions remain unanswered and … Read More

Falsifiability

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Falsifiability (also referred to as the use of refutability) was introduced by Karl Popper and is considered an important concept in epistemology, allowing to draw a line between scientific theories and those that are not. An assertion, a hypothesis, is … Read More

Atomic nucleus

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(Atomic nucleus of helium.) The atomic nucleus refers to the region located in the center of an atom made up of protons and neutrons (nucleons). The size of the nucleus (of the order of a femtometer, ie 10-15 meters) is … Read More

Social equality

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Social equality is a legal and philosophical concept. It stems from the principle of equality, which appears at the head of the declarations of human rights (universal declaration of human rights of 1948). This has two main aspects: civil equality, … Read More

Pain in animals

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According to Manfred Zimmermann, an aversive sensory experience can be described as pain perception in animals , “Which is triggered by actual or threatened injury, induces motor and vegetative protective reactions, leads to learned avoidance and possibly changes species-specific behavior, including social behavior.” – Zimmermann, How do animals feel pain? This definition follows that for … Read More

Philosophy of culture

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The philosophy of culture is a philosophy that formulates cultural theories, expresses distance from traditional conceptions and reflects cultural phenomena. It developed around the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Century in the context of social and political changes in the pre-war- and post-war … Read More

Electromagnetic radiation – Electromagnetic waves

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(Distribution of electromagnetic radiation. ) Electromagnetic radiation refers to a form of linear energy transfer. Visible light is electromagnetic radiation, but is only a small slice of the broad electromagnetic spectrum. The propagation of this radiation, of one or more … Read More

Cosmological argument

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The cosmological argument is a type of argument of classical natural theology that starts from some alleged properties of the observed universe (its coming into being, its being able to have been different from what it is, the contingency or … Read More

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