Bird migration has been studied by a variety of techniques of which ringing is the oldest. Color marking, use of radar, satellite tracking and stable hydrogen isotopes are some of the other techniques being used to study the migration of birds.
It has been possible to teach a new migration route to a flock of birds, for example in re-introduction schmes. After a trial with Canada Geese, microlites were used in the US to teach safe migration routes to reintroduced Whooping Cranes .
- Alerstam, T. (2001). Detours in bird migration. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 209, 319-331.
- Berthold, Peter (2001) Bird Migration: A General Survey. Second Edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850787-9
- Weidensaul, Scott. Living On the Wind: Across the Hemisphere With Migratory Birds. Douglas & McIntyre, 1999.
- Dingle, Hugh. Migration: The Biology of Life on The Move. Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.