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Branches of science

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he scale of the Earth mapped to the branches of science
Source https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Scientific_Universe.png 

(The scale of the Earth mapped to the branches of science, with formal sciences as the foundation. )

The branches of science – divisions within science with respect to the entity or system in question, which normally embodies its own terminology and nomenclature.

Natural science

Natural sciences – important branch of science, which tries to explain and predict the phenomena of nature, based on empirical evidence. In the natural sciences, hypotheses must be scientifically verified to be considered as scientific theory. Validity, precision and social mechanisms that guarantee quality control, such as peer review and repeatability of results, are among the criteria and methods used for this purpose. The natural sciences can be divided into 2 main branches: biology and physical science. Each of these branches, and all its sub-branches, are known as natural sciences.

Physical science

Physical science – branch of natural science that studies non-living systems , in contrast to the biological sciences. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a “physical science”. However, the term “physical” creates an involuntary, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena (organic chemistry, for example).

  • Physics – physical science that studies matter and its movement through space-time, and related concepts, such as energy and force
    • Acoustics – study of mechanical waves in solids, liquids and gases (such as vibration and sound)
    • Agrophysics – study of physics applied to agroecosystems
    • Soil physics – study of the physical properties of soil and processes.
    • Astrophysics – study of the physical aspects of celestial objects
    • Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and of evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and the movement of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and of the phenomena that originate outside the Earth’s atmosphere (for example, the cosmic background radiation).
      • Astrodynamics – application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to practical problems related to the movement of rockets and other spacecraft.
      • Astrometry – a branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
      • Cosmology – the discipline that deals with the nature of the universe as a whole.
      • Extragalactic astronomy – branch of astronomy that deals with objects outside our own Milky Way
      • Galactic astronomy – study of our own galaxy, the Milky Way and all its contents.
      • Physical cosmology – study of the larger scale structures and dynamics of the universe and deals with fundamental questions about their formation and evolution.
      • Planetary science – scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons and planetary systems, in particular those of the Solar System, and the processes that form them.
      • Stellar astronomy – natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth’s atmosphere (such as cosmic background radiation)
    • Atmospheric physics – study of the application of physics to the atmosphere
    • Atomic, molecular and optical physics – study of how matter and light interact
    • Biophysics – study of physical processes in relation to biology
      • Medical physics – the application of concepts of physics, theories and methods to medicine.
      • Neurophysics – branch of biophysics dealing with the nervous system.
    • Physics chemistry – branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics.
    • Computational physics – study and application of numerical algorithms to solve problems of physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.
    • Physics of condensed matter – study of the physical properties of condensed phases of matter.
    • Cryogenics – Cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below -150 ° C, -238 ° F or 123K) and the behavior of materials at these temperatures.
    • Dynamics – study of the causes of movement and changes in movement
    • Econophysics – field of interdisciplinary research, the application of theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in the economy
    • Electromagnetism – a branch of science that studies the forces that occur between electrically charged particles.
    • Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; Also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods
    • Material physics – the use of physics to describe materials in many different ways, such as strength, heat, light and mechanics.
    • Mathematical physics – application of mathematics to the problems of physics and the development of mathematical methods for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories.
    • Mechanics – branch of physics that deals with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of bodies on their environment.
      • Biomechanics – study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs and cells by means of mechanical methods.
      • Classical mechanics – one of the two main sub-fields of mechanics, has to do with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the action of a system of forces.
      • Continuous mechanics – branch of mechanics that deals with
      • Quantum mechanics – the branch of physics that deals with physical phenomena where the action is in the order of the Planck constant.
      • Thermodynamics – a branch of physical science concerned with heat and its relation to other forms of energy and work.
    • Nuclear physics – field of physics that studies the basic components and interactions of atomic nuclei.
    • Optics – a branch of physics that involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
    • Particle physics – a branch of physics that studies the existence and interactions of the particles that are the constituents of what is generally known as matter or radiation.
    • Psychophysics – quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions that affect them.
    • Plasma physics – state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles ionize.
    • Polymer physics – field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, the mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of the reactions that involve the degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers, respectively.
    • Quantum physics – branch of physics that deals with physical phenomena where the action is in the order of the Planck constant.
    • Relativity – in physics, it usually encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
    • Static – branch of the mechanics in question with the analysis of loads (force, torque/moment) in the physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of the subsystems do not vary with time, or where the components and structures are at a constant speed.
    • Solid state physics – study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
    • Vehicle dynamics – vehicle dynamics, here assumes that there are land vehicles.
  • Chemistry – physical science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior and the changes that are related to chemical reactions
    • Analytical chemistry – study of the separation, identification and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.
    • Astrochemistry – study of the abundance and reactions of chemical elements and molecules in the universe, and their interaction with radiation.
    • Cosmochemistry – study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions
    • Atmospheric chemistry – branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the atmosphere of the Earth and that of other planets is studied. It is a multidisciplinary field of research and is based on the chemistry of the environment, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology and volcanology, as well as other disciplines.
    • Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all the processes of life and living organisms.
    • Agrochemistry – study of chemistry and biochemistry that are important in agricultural production, the transformation of raw products into food and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation.
    • Bioinorganic chemistry – examines the role of metals in biology.
    • Bioorganic chemistry – rapid growth scientific discipline that combines organic chemistry and biochemistry.
    • Biophysical chemistry – a new branch of chemistry that covers a broad spectrum of research activities involving biological systems.
    • Environmental chemistry – scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
    • Immunochemistry – a branch of chemistry that involves the study of reactions and components in the immune system.
    • Medical chemistry – discipline at the intersection of chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, especially, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with the design, chemical synthesis and development for the market of pharmaceutical agents (drugs).
    • Pharmacology – branch of medicine and biology deals with the study of the action of the drug.
    • Natural chemistry product – chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism – found in nature that usually has a pharmacological or biological activity for use in pharmaceutical drug discovery and drug design.
    • Neurochemistry – a specific study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as neuroactive drugs that influence neuronal function.
    • Computational chemistry – branch of chemistry that uses principles of computer science to assist in solving chemical problems.
    • Chemo-informatics – use of equipment and information techniques, applied to a series of problems in the field of chemistry.
    • Molecular mechanics – uses Newtonian mechanics to model molecular systems.
    • Chemistry of taste – someone who uses chemistry to design artificial and natural flavors.
    • Flow chemistry – chemical reaction runs in a stream that flows continuously instead of in batch production.
    • Geochemistry – study of the mechanisms behind the main geological systems using chemistry
    • Aqueous geochemistry – study of the function of the different elements of watersheds, including copper, sulfur, mercury, and how elementary flows are exchanged through atmosphere-terrestrial-aquatic interactions
    • Isotopic geochemistry – study of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes using chemistry and geology
    • Ocean chemistry – studies the chemistry of marine environments, including the influence of different variables.
    • Organic geochemistry – study of the impacts and processes that organisms have had on Earth
    • Regional, environmental and geochemical exploration – study of spatial variation in the chemical composition of materials on the surface of the Earth
    • Inorganic chemistry – branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds.
    • Nuclear chemistry – subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties.
    • Radiochemistry – chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance that is described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable).
    • Organic chemistry – study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and the preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of compounds based on carbon, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.
    • Petrochemical – a branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials.
    • Organometallic chemistry – study of chemical compounds that contain bonds between carbon and a metal.
    • Photochemistry – study of the chemical reactions that proceed with the absorption of light by atoms or molecules
    • Physicochemistry – study of, subatomic, and phenomena of macroscopic, atomic particles in chemical systems in terms of physical laws and concepts.
    • Chemical kinetics – the study of the rates of chemical processes.
    • Chemical thermodynamics – study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or physical changes of the state within the limits of the laws of thermodynamics.
    • Electrochemistry – a branch of chemistry that studies the chemical reactions that take place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor (a metal or a semiconductor) and an ion conductor (the electrolyte), and that involve the transfer of electrons between the electrode and electrolyte or species in solution.
    • Femtochemistry – Femtochemistry is the science that studies chemical reactions on very short time scales, approximately 10 to 15 seconds (one femtosecond, hence the name).
    • Mathematical chemistry – research area dedicated to the new applications of mathematics to chemistry; which deals mainly with the mathematical models of chemical phenomena.
    • Mechanochemistry – coupling of mechanics and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behavior of mechanically stressed solids (eg stress cracking and corrosion), tribology, polymer degradation under shear, phenomena related to cavitation (for example, sonochemistry and sonoluminescence), unloads the chemistry and physics of the wave, and even the burgeoning field of molecular machines.
    • Physical organic chemistry – study of the interrelations between the structure and reactivity of organic molecules.
    • Quantum chemistry – branch of chemistry whose main objective is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and chemical system experiments.
    • Sonochemistry – study of the effect of sonic waves and wave properties in chemical systems.
    • Stereochemistry – study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules.
    • Supramolecular chemistry – area of ​​chemistry beyond molecules and focuses on chemical systems formed by a discrete number of subunits or assembled molecular components.
    • Thermochemistry – study of energy and heat associated with chemical reactions and / or physical transformations.
    • Phytochemistry – strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals.
    • Polymer chemistry – multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules.
    • Solid state chemistry – study of the synthesis, structure and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively, non-molecular solids
    • Multidisciplinary fields related to chemistry
      • Chemical biology – the scientific discipline that encompasses the fields of chemistry and biology that involves the application of chemical techniques and tools, often compounds produced through the synthesis chemistry, study and manipulation of biological systems.
      • Chemical engineering – branch of engineering that deals with physical science (for example, chemistry and physics), and life sciences (for example, biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics and economics, for the process to convert raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable ways.
      • Chemical oceanography – study of the behavior of chemical elements within the oceans of the Earth.
      • Physics chemistry – branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics.
      • Materials science – interdisciplinary field of applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering.
      • Nanotechnology – study of the manipulation of matter at the atomic and molecular scales
      • Enology – the science and study of all aspects of wine and winemaking except-vine cultivation and grape-harvest, which is a sub-field called viticulture.
      • Spectroscopy – study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy
    • Surface science – Surface science is the study of the physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the two-phase interface, including solid-liquid interfaces, solid-gas interfaces, solid-vacuum interfaces, and liquid gas interfaces.
  • Earth sciences – term for all-encompassing sciences related to the planet Earth. Earth sciences, and all its branches, are branches of physical science.
    • Atmospheric sciences – general term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects of other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
    • Biogeography – study of the distribution of species (biology), organisms and ecosystems in the geographical space and geological time.
    • Cartography – study and practice of making maps or balloons.
    • Climatology – climate study, scientifically defined as average weather conditions over a period of time
    • Coastal geography – study of the dynamic interface between ocean and land, which incorporates both physical geography (ie, coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and human geography (sociology and history) of the coast.
    • Geodesy – a scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a variable three-dimensional time
    • Geography – science that studies the earth, characteristics, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth
    • Geoinformatics – the science and technology that develops and uses the infrastructure of information science to address the problems of geography, earth sciences and related engineering branches.
    • Geology – study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of life today, the flow in the ocean, and the environment.
    • Planetary geology – discipline of the planetary sciences in question with the geology of celestial bodies such as planets and their moons, asteroids, comets and meteorites.
    • Geomorphology – scientific study of geographic features and the processes that form them
    • Geostatistics – branch of statistics focuses on spatial or spatio-temporal datasets
    • Geophysics – Physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.
    • Glaciology – study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena involving ice.
    • Hydrology – study of the movement, distribution and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrological cycle, water resources and the environmental sustainability of watersheds.
    • Hydrogeology – area of ​​geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the earth’s crust (commonly in aquifers).
    • Mineralogy – study of the chemistry, crystalline structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals.
    • Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that explains and forecasts meteorological phenomena.
    • Oceanography – branch of science that studies the Earth the ocean
    • Paleoclimatology – study of changes in climate taken at the scale of the entire history of the Earth
    • Paleontology – study of prehistoric life
    • Petrology – a branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks.
    • Limnology – study of inland waters
    • Seismology – scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the earth or through other planetary bodies such as
    • Soil science – study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and cartography; physical, chemical, biological, and properties of soil fertility; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
    • Topography – study of the shape of the surface and features of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons and asteroids.
    • Vulcanology – study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and geological related, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
  • The science of the environment – an integrated and quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.
    • Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how distribution and abundance are affected by the interactions between organisms and their environment.
    • Freshwater biology – scientific biological study of freshwater ecosystems and is a branch of Limnology
    • Marine biology – scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or bodies of brackish water
    • Parasitology – Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
    • Population dynamics – Population dynamics is the branch of biological sciences that studies short-term and long-term changes in the size and age composition of the population, and the biological and environmental processes that influence these changes.
    • Soil science Environmental – environmental edaphology is the study of the interaction of human beings with the pedosphere, as well as the critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere.
    • Environmental geography – The spatial aspects of the environment and the relationships between human-environmental systems.
    • Environmental geology – Environmental Geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science that deals with the practical application of the principles of geology in the resolution of environmental problems.
    • Toxicology – branch of biology, chemistry and medicine that deals with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals in living organisms.

Biology

Biology – study of living organisms.

  • Aerobiology – study of organic particles in the air
  • Agriculture – study of the production of land crops, with an emphasis on practical applications
  • Anatomy – study of form and function, in plants, animals and other organisms, or specifically in humans
  • Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human being.
  • Astrobiology – study of the evolution, distribution and future of life in the universe, also known as exobiology, exopaleontology and bioastronomy
  • Biochemistry – study of the chemical reactions necessary for life to exist and function, usually a focus at the cellular level
  • Bioengineering – study of biology through the means of engineering with emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
  • Biogeography – study of the spatial and temporal distribution of species
  • Bioinformatics – use of information technologies for the study, collection and storage of biological data, genomics and other
  • Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology – quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling
  • Biomechanics – often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with emphasis on the application applied through prostheses or orthopedic devices
  • Biomedical research – study of the human body in health and disease
  • Biophysics – study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
  • Biotechnology – new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
  • Construction biology – study of indoor living conditions
  • Botany – study of plants
  • The biology of the cell – study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
  • Conservation Biology – study of the conservation, protection or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation and fauna
  • Chronobiology – field of biology that studies periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar energy and rhythms related to moles.
  • Cryobiology – study of the effects of low temperatures normally preferred in living beings.
  • Developmental biology – study of the processes through which an organism is formed, from zygote to the complete structure
    • Embryology – study of the development of embryos (from fertilization to birth).
    • Gerontology – study of aging processes.
  • Ecology – study of the interactions of living organisms with each other and with the non-living elements of their environment
  • Environmental Biology – study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially because it is affected by human activity
  • Main components of public health research, the study that affects the health of populations – Epidemiology
  • Evolution – any change through successive generations in the hereditary characteristics of biological populations.
    • Evolutionary Biology – study of the origin and descent of species over time
    • Biology of evolutionary development – field of biology that compares the development processes of different organisms to determine the ancestral relationship between them, and to discover how development processes evolved.
    • Paleobiology – a discipline that combines the methods and conclusions of the biology of natural science with the methods and conclusions of palaeontology, earth sciences.
    • Paleontology – study of fossils and the sometimes geographical evidence of prehistoric life
  • Genetics – study of genes and inheritance
    • Genomics – discipline in genetics related to the study of the genomes of organisms.
    • Proteomics – large-scale study of proteins, in particular their structures and functions
    • Population genetics – study of changes in gene frequencies in
  • Histology – study of cells and tissues, a branch of microscopic anatomy
  • Integrative Biology – study of whole organisms
  • Limnology – study of inland waters
  • Marine Biology – study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals and other living beings
  • Microbiology – study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living beings
    • Bacteriology – study of bacteria.
    • Virology – study of viruses and some other virus-like agents
  • Molecular Biology – study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some with a cross on biochemistry
    • Structural biology – branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics and dealing with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
  • Morphology – In biology, morphology is a branch of biological science that deals with the study of the shape and structure of organisms and their specific structural characteristics.
  • Mycology – study of fungi
  • Oceanography – study of the ocean, including marine life, the environment, geography, climate and other aspects that influence the ocean
  • Oncology – study of cancer processes, including virus or oncogenesis mutation, angiogenesis and tissue remoldings
    • Population biology – study of groups of organisms same species, including
    • Population ecology – study of how population dynamics and extinction
  • Population genetics – study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms
  • Biopathology or pathology – study of diseases and causes, processes, nature, and development of the disease
  • Parasitology – study of parasites and parasitism
  • Pharmacology – study and practical application of the preparation, use and effects of drugs and synthetic drugs
  • Physiology – study of the functioning of living organisms and organs and parts of living organisms
  • Immunology – following scheme is provided as a general description of guidance and current immunology:
  • Kinesiology – Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement
  • Neurobiology – study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and pathology
  • Neuroscience – interdisciplinary science that studies the nervous system
  • Histology –
  • Phytopathology – study of plant diseases (also called phytopathology)
  • Psychobiology – study of the biological basis of psychology
  • Sociobiology – study of the biological basis of sociology
  • Systematics – study of the diversification of life forms, both in the past and the present, and the relationships between living beings through time
  • Cladistica – method of classifying species of organisms into groups called clades, which consist of a predecessor organism and all its descendants (and nothing else)
  • Phylogeny – study of the evolutionary relationship between groups of organisms (eg, species, populations), which is discovered through the sequence of molecular data and matrices of morphological data
  • Taxonomy – science of the identification and nomenclature of species, and organizing them into a classification.
  • Zoology – study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior
  • Arachnology – scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, reapers, collectively called arachnids.
    • Acarology – study of the arachnid taxon that contains mites and ticks
      • Entomology – study of insects
    • Mirmecology – scientific study of ants, a branch of entomology
      • Coleopterology – study of beetles
      • Lepidopterology – study of a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (called lepidoptera)
      • Ethology – study of animal behavior
    • Helminthology – study of worms, especially parasitic worms
    • Herpetology – study of reptiles and amphibians
    • Ichthyology – study of fish
    • Malacology – branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of molluscs (molluscs or molluscs), which is the second edge of animals in terms of species described after arthropods.
    • Mastozoology – study of mammals
      • Cetology – branch of the science of marine mammals that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, dolphins and porpoises in the scientific order Cetacea.
      • Physical anthropology – studies the development of the physical environment of the human species.
    • Nematology – scientific discipline deals with the study of nematodes or round worms
    • Ornithology – study of birds

Formal science

Formal science – branches of knowledge that deals with formal systems, such as: logic, mathematics, theoretical informatics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics.

Unlike other sciences, formal sciences have nothing to do with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and norms.

  • Computing – study of the theoretical foundations of information and computing and its implementation and application of computer systems. (See also Computer Science Branches and ACM Computer Classification System)
  • Theory of computation – a branch that deals with if and how efficiently problems can be solved in a calculation model, using an algorithm
    • Theory of automata – study of mathematical objects called abstract machines or automata and the calculation problems that can be solved by using them.
    • Formal languages – set of chains of symbols.
    • Computability theory – a branch of mathematical logic and computer science that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.
    • Theory of computational complexity – branch of computational theory in computer science and mathematics that focuses on the classification of calculation problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relate these classes to each other
    • Theory of concurrency – In computing, concurrency is a property of systems in which several calculations are executing at the same time, and potentially interacting with each other
  • Algorithms – step by step procedure for calculation
    • Random algorithms – algorithm that uses a degree of randomness as part of its logic.
    • Distributed algorithms – Algorithm designed to run on hardware built from interconnected processors
    • Parallel algorithms – algorithm that can execute one piece at a time in many different processing devices, and then put it back together again at the end to get the correct result.
  • Data structure – in particular how to store and organize data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently.
  • Computer Architecture – In computer science and engineering, computer architecture is the practical art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create equipment that meets functional, performance and cost objectives and the formal modeling of those systems.
    • Very large scale integration design – process of creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistors on a single chip
  • Operating systems – set of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs
  • Computer communications (networks) – collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow the exchange of resources and information
  • Information theory – branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering involving the quantification of information
  • Internet – a worldwide system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol family (often called TCP / IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide.
  • World Wide Web – part of the Internet; system of interconnected hypertext documents that is accessed through the Internet.
    • Wireless computing – any type of computer network that is not connected by wires of any kind.
  • Mobile computing – form of human-computer interaction in which a computer is expected to be transported during normal use.
  • Computer security – a branch of information technology known as information security as it applies to computers and networks.
  • Reliability – design approach and implementation of the associated service system that ensures a pre-established level of operational performance met during a contractual measurement period.
  • Cryptography – practice and the study of hiding information.
  • Fault tolerance design – property that allows a system (often equipment based) to continue to function properly in case of failure of (or one or more defects within) some of its components
  • Distributed computing – field of computing that studies distributed systems
  • Grid computing – federation of computing resources from multiple administrative domains to achieve a common goal
  • Parallel computing – a form of calculation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, works on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved simultaneously (“in parallel”).
  • High performance computing – equipment in the first line of the current processing capacity, in particular the calculation speed
  • Quantum computing – a device for calculation that makes direct use of the phenomena of quantum mechanics, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data
  • Computer graphics – graphics created with computers and, more generally, the representation and manipulation of image data on a computer with the help of specialized software and hardware.
  • Image processing – any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the image processing output can be an image or a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image
  • Scientific visualization – interdisciplinary branch of science according to friendly (2008) “refers mainly to the visualization of three dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic representations of volumes, surfaces, lighting sources, and so on, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component. “
  • Computational geometry – a branch of computer science dedicated to the study of algorithms that can be established in terms of geometry
  • Software engineering – the application of a discipline, systematic and quantifiable approach to the development, operation and maintenance of software; which is the application of software engineering
  • Formal methods – in particular type of mathematically based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems
  • Formal verification – the act of proving or refuting the correction of underlying algorithms of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, the use of formal methods of mathematics
  • Programming languages ​​- artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer
  • Programming paradigms – fundamental style of computer programming
  • Object-oriented programming – programming paradigm using “objects” – data structures consisting of data fields and methods together with their interactions – to design applications and computer programs
  • Functional programming – programming paradigm that treats computing as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data
  • Semantics of the program – field deals with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages
  • Theory type – any of several formal systems that can serve as an alternative to naive set theory, or the study of such formalisms in general
  • Compilers – a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms written source code into a programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language often has a binary format known as object code)
  • Concurrent programming languages ​​- a form of computing in which programs are designed as collections of interacting computational processes that can be run in parallel
  • Information science – interdisciplinary field mainly with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information
  • Database – organized data collection, today normally in digital form
  • Relational database – collection of data elements organized as a set of formally described tables from which data can be easily accessed
  • Distributed database – the database in which the storage devices are not all attached to a common CPU.
  • Database of objects – database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming
  • Multimedia – media and content that uses a combination of different forms of content.
  • Hypermedia – computer-based information retrieval system that allows a user to obtain or provide access to texts, audio and video recordings, photographs and computer graphics related to a particular subject.
  • Data mining – process that results in the discovery of new patterns in large datasets
  • Information retrieval – area of ​​study in question with the search of documents, to obtain information within the documents, and for the metadata about the documents, as well as the search for structured storage, relational databases, and the World Wide Web.
  • Artificial intelligence – branch of computing that deals with intelligent behavior, learning and adaptation of machines.
  • Automated reasoning – area of ​​computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning.
  • Computer vision – field that includes methods to acquire, process, analyze and understand the images and, in general, the high-dimensional data of the real world in order to produce numerical or symbolic information, for example, in the forms of decisions.
  • Machine learning – scientific discipline deals with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on empirical data, such as data from sensors or databases
  • Artificial neural network – mathematical model or a computational model that is inspired by the structure and / or functional aspects of biological neural networks
  • Natural language processing – computer field, artificial intelligence (also called learning machine), and linguistics that deal with the interactions between computers and (natural) human languages.
  • Computational linguistics – an interdisciplinary field that deals with statistical modeling or based on natural language rules from a computational perspective.
  • Expert systems – computer system that emulates the decision-making capacity of a human expert
  • Robotics – a branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural arrangement, manufacture and application of robots
  • Person-computer interaction – study, planning and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers.
  • Numerical analysis – study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for problems of mathematical analysis (unlike discrete mathematics).
  • Algebraic (symbolic) – refers to algorithms and software for the manipulation of mathematical expressions and equations in symbolic form, as opposed to the manipulation of the approximations of specific numerical quantities represented by said symbols. Software applications that perform symbolic calculations are called computational algebra systems.
  • Computational number theory – study of algorithms to perform theoretical numerical calculations
  • Computational mathematics – involves mathematical research in the areas of science, where computer science plays a central and essential role, emphasizing algorithms, numerical methods and symbolic methods
  • Scientific computing (computational science) –
  • Computational biology (bioinformatics) – involves the development and application of analytical and theoretical data methods, mathematical models and computational simulation techniques for the study of biological, behavioral and social systems.
  • Computational science – subfield of informatics deals with the construction of mathematical models and techniques of quantitative analysis and the use of computers to analyze and solve scientific problems
  • Computational chemistry – a branch of chemistry that uses computer principles to help solve chemical problems
  • Computational neuroscience – study of brain function in terms of information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system.
  • Computer-aided engineering – extensive use of computer software to aid in engineering tasks.
  • Finite element analysis – numerical technique to find approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDE), as well as integral equations.
  • Computational fluid dynamics – a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems involving fluid flows.
  • Computational economics – research discipline at the interface between computer science and economic science and management
  • Computational sociology – a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.
  • Computational finance – an interdisciplinary field based on computational intelligence, financial mathematics, numerical methods and computer simulations to make business, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the management of the risks of those decisions
  • Humanities computing (Digital humanities) – area of ​​research, teaching and creation in question with the intersection of computer science and the disciplines of the humanities
  • Information systems – study of complementary hardware and software networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data
  • IT to companies – information technology combining discipline (IT), information technology and management concepts.
  • Information technology –
  • Management information systems – provides information that is needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively
  • Health informatics – the discipline at the intersection of information science, computer science, and health care.
  • Mathematics – look for fundamental truths in the pattern, quantity, and change.
  • Algebra – one of the main branches of mathematics, refers to the study of structure, relationship and quantity.
  • Group theory – studies the algebraic structures known as groups.
  • Representation group – describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces
  • Ring theory – study of algebraic ring structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those that are familiar with whole numbers
  • Field theory – branch of mathematics that studies the properties of fields
  • Linear algebra – branch of mathematics in relation to vector spaces of infinite finite or numerable dimensions, as well as linear applications between said spaces.
  • Vector space – mathematical structure formed by a collection of vectors: objects that can be added together and multiplied (“scaled”) by numbers, called scalars in this context.
  • Multilinear algebra – extends the methods of linear algebra
  • Lie algebra – algebraic structure whose main use is in the study of geometric objects, such as Lie groups and differentiable varieties
  • Associative algebra – associative ring that has a compatible structure of a vector space on a certain field K or, more generally, of a module on a commutative ring R.
  • Non-associative algebra – K-vector space (or more generally a module) A equipped with a bilinear K-map
  • Universal algebra – field of mathematics that studies itself algebraic structures, not examples (“models”) of algebraic structures
  • Homological algebra – branch of mathematics that studies homology in an algebraic environment in general
  • Theory category – area of ​​study in mathematics that examines in an abstract way the properties of certain mathematical concepts, by the formalization of them as collections of objects and arrows (also called morphisms, although this term also has one, not the category-theoretical specific sense ), where these collections meet some basic conditions
  • Theory of the lattice – partially ordered set in which either of the two elements have a unique supreme (also called an upper limit or join less) and a tiny minimum (also called a lower end or are found).
  • Theory of order – branch of mathematics that investigates our intuitive notion of order using binary relations.
  • Differential algebra – algebras equipped with a derivation, which is a unary function that is linear and satisfies the Leibniz product rule.
  • Analysis – branch of pure mathematics that includes the theories of differentiation, integration and measurement, limits, infinite series, and analytical functions
  • Real analysis – branch of mathematical analysis dealing with the set of numbers and functions of a real real variable.
  • Calculus – branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals and infinite series.
  • Complex analysis – branch of mathematical analysis that investigates the functions of complex numbers
  • Functional analysis – branch of mathematical analysis, whose core is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit related structure (for example inside the product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear operators that act on these spaces and respecting these structures in a proper sense
  • Operator theory – branch of functional analysis that focuses on bounded linear operators, but that includes closed operators and non-linear operators.
  • Non-standard analysis – branch of classical mathematics that formulates analysis using a rigorous notion of an infinitesimal number.
  • Harmonic analysis – branch of mathematics that deals with the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves, and the study of and the generalization of the notions of Fourier series and Fourier transforms.
  • p-Adic analysis – branch of the theory of numbers that deals with the mathematical analysis of the functions of the p-adic numbers.
  • Ordinary differential equations – ordinary differential equation (ODE) is an equation in which there is only one independent variable and one or more derivatives of a dependent variable with respect to the independent variable, so that all the derivatives that occur in the equation are ordinary derivatives.
  • Partial differential equations – differential equation that contains functions of several unknown variables and their partial derivatives.
  • Theory of probability – branch of mathematics dealing with probability, the analysis of random phenomena.
  • Measure the theory – systematically to assign a number to each appropriate subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size.
  • Ergodic theory – branch of mathematics that studies dynamic systems with an invariant measure and related problems.
  • Stochastic process – collection of random variables; This is often used to represent the evolution of a random value, or system, over time.
  • Geometry – branch of mathematics that deals with issues of shape, size, relative position of figures, and properties of space. Geometry is one of the oldest mathematical sciences.
  • Topology – large area of ​​mathematics related to properties that are conserved under continuous deformations of objects, such as deformations that involve stretching, but without tearing or gluing.
  • General topology – branch of the topology that studies the properties of topological spaces and structures defined in them.
  • Algebraic topology – branch of mathematics that uses abstract algebra tools to study topological spaces
  • Geometric topology – study of collectors and maps between them, in particular inlays of one collector in another.
  • Differential topology – field of dealing with differentiable functions in differentiable varieties
  • Algebraic geometry – a branch of mathematics that combines techniques of abstract algebra, commutative algebra, especially with language and problems of geometry
  • Differential geometry – mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus and integral calculus, as well as linear algebra and multilinear algebra, to study the problems of geometry
  • Projective geometry – study of geometric properties that are invariant under projective transformations
  • Related geometry – study of the geometric properties that remain unchanged by related transformations
  • The non-Euclidean geometry – any of the two specific geometries that are, generally speaking, obtained by means of the negation of the postulate of the parallels of Euclid, that is, the hyperbolic and elliptical geometry.
  • Convex geometry – a branch of geometry that studies convex sets, especially in Euclidean space.
  • Discrete geometry – a branch of geometry that studies the combinatorial properties and construction methods of discrete geometric objects.
  • Trigonometry –
  • Theory of numbers – branch of pure mathematics dedicated mainly to the study of whole numbers
  • Analytical theory of numbers – branch of the theory of numbers that uses methods of mathematical analysis to solve problems about whole numbers
  • Algebraic theory of numbers – important branch of the theory of numbers that studies the algebraic structures related to algebraic integers
  • Number geometrical theory – studies convex bodies and vectors of integers in n-dimensional space
  • Logic and fundamentals of mathematics – subfield of mathematics with close links to the foundations of mathematics, theoretical informatics and philosophical logic.
  • Set theory – branch of mathematics that studies sets, which are collections of objects
  • Theory of the test – branch of the mathematical logic that represents tests like formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques
  • The theory of models – study of (classes of) mathematical structures (for example, groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory), using tools of mathematical logic
  • Theory of repetition – branch of mathematical logic and computer science that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and degrees of Turing
  • Logical modal – type of formal logic developed mainly in the 1960s that extends classical propositional logic and predicates to include operators expressing modality
  • Intuitionist logic – system of symbolic logic that differs from classical logic in its definition of the meaning of a statement is true
  • Applied mathematics – branch of mathematics that deals with mathematical methods that are commonly used in science, engineering, business and industry.
  • Mathematical statistics – study of statistics from a mathematical point of view, using probability theory, as well as other branches of mathematics such as algebra and linear analysis
  • Probability – probability or possibility that something is the case or will happen
  • Econometrics – application of mathematics and statistical methods to economic data
  • Actuarial science – a discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance and finance industries.
  • Demography – statistical study of human populations and subpopulations.
  • Approach theory – study of how it works best can be approximated with simpler functions and with quantitative characterization of the errors introduced by it.
  • Numerical analysis – study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for problems of mathematical analysis (unlike discrete mathematics).
  • Optimization (mathematical programming) – Selection of a better element from a set of available alternatives.
  • Operations research – study of the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions
  • Linear programming – mathematical method to determine the way to achieve the best result (as maximum benefit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model given by some list of requirements represented as linear relationships
  • Dynamic systems – concept in mathematics when a fixed standard describes the time dependence of a point in a geometric space
  • Chaos theory – study of the behavior of dynamic systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions, an effect that is popularly known as the butterfly effect.
  • Fractal geometry – mathematical game that has a fractal dimension that generally exceeds its topological dimension and can fall between integers.
  • Mathematical physics – development of mathematical methods for its application to the problems of physics
  • Quantum field theory – theoretical framework for the construction of quantum mechanics models of classically parameterized systems (represented) by an infinite number of degrees of freedom, that is, fields and (in a context of condensed matter) Systems of many bodies .
  • Statistical mechanics – branch of physics that applies probability theory, which contains mathematical tools to deal with large populations, studying the thermodynamic behavior of systems composed of a large number of particles.
  • Information theory – branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering that involve the quantification of information.
  • Cryptography – study of obscuring information media, such as codes and figures
  • Combinatorial – branch of mathematics in relation to the study of finite or accounting discrete structures
  • Codification of the theory – study of the properties of codes and their suitability for a specific application
  • Graph theory – study of graphs, mathematical structures used to model relationships between pairs of objects from a certain collection
  • Game theory – study of strategic decision making. More formally, it is “the study of mathematical models of conflicts and cooperation among those responsible for making intelligent rational decisions.”
  • Statistics – collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of the data.
  • Computational statistics – interface between statistics and information technology.
  • Data mining – process that results in the discovery of new patterns in large datasets
  • Regression – estimates of the conditional expectation of the dependent variable, given the independent variables – that is, the average value of the dependent variable when the independent variables remain fixed.
  • Simulation – Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a process in the real world or the system over time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model was developed; This model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the physical or abstract system or selected process. The model represents the system itself, while the simulation represents the functioning of the system over time.
  • Bootstrap (statistics) – method of assigning precision measurements to test estimates (Efron and Tibshirani 1993).
  • Design of experiments – design of any information gathering exercise, where variation is present, either under the total control of the experimenter or not
  • Block design – set, together with a family of subsets (repeated subsets is sometimes allowed), whose members are chosen to satisfy a set of properties that are considered useful for a particular application.
  • Analysis of variance – collection of statistical models and their associated procedures, in which the variation observed in a certain variable is divided into components attributable to different sources of variation.
  • Surface response methodology – explores the relationships between several explanatory variables and one or more response variables.
  • Engineering statistics – Engineering statistics combines engineering and statistics
  • Spatial statistics – any of the formal techniques that study entities that use their topological, geometric or geographic properties.
  • Social statistics – use of statistical measurement systems for the study of human behavior in a social environment
  • Statistical modeling – the formalization of relations between variables in the form of mathematical equations
  • Biostatistics – application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
  • Epidemiology – study of the distribution and patterns of events-health, health characteristics and their causes or influences in well-defined populations.
  • Multivariate analysis – the observation and analysis of more than one statistical variable at a time.
  • Structural equation model – statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal hypotheses.
  • Time series – sequence of data points, typically measured at successive time instants spaced at uniform time intervals.
  • Theory reliability – describes the probability of a system completing its intended function over a period of time.
  • Quality control – process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.
  • Statistical theory – provides a basis for the full range of techniques, both in study design and data analysis, which are used within the applications of statistics.
  • Decision theory – identifies the values, uncertainties and other relevant issues in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision.
  • Mathematical statistics – study of statistics from the mathematical point of view, using probability theory, as well as other branches of mathematics such as algebra and linear analysis.
  • Probability – probability or possibility that something is the case or will happen.
  • Sample of the survey – process of selecting a sample of elements of a target population in order to carry out a survey.
  • Theory of sampling – study of the collection, organization, analysis and interpretation of data.
  • Methodology of the survey – field that studies the taking of samples of individuals of a population with a view to making statistical inferences about the population that uses the sample.
  • Systems of science – an interdisciplinary field of science that studies the nature of complex systems in nature, society and science.
  • Chaos theory – field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines such as physics, engineering, economics, biology and philosophy; study the behavior of dynamic systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
  • Complex systems and theory of complexity – studies how the relationships between the parts give rise to the collective behavior of a system and how the system interacts and forms the relationships with its environment.
  • Cybernetics – interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems.
  • Biocybernetics – application of cybernetics to biological science, composed of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics: neurology, multicellular systems and others.
  • Cybernetics of engineering – field of the cybernetics, that deals with the question of the engineering of control of mechatronic systems, as well as the chemical or biological systems.
  • Cybernetics management – field of cybernetics that deal with management and organizations.
  • Cybernetics physicians – branch of cybernetics that has been strongly affected by the development of the computer, which applies the concepts of cybernetics to research and medical practice.
  • New cybernetics – study of systems of self-organization according to Peter Harries-Jones (1988), “Beyond the themes of the” first “,” old “or” original “cybernetics and their politics and science control, the autonomy and capabilities of complex self-organization systems “.
  • Second-order cybernetics – investigates the construction of models of cybernetic systems.
  • Control theory – control theory is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals with the behavior of dynamic systems. The external input of a system is called the reference. When one or more output variables of a system must follow a certain reference in time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired effect on the output of the system.
  • Control engineering – the engineering discipline that applies control theory to design systems with desired behaviors.
  • Control systems – device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behavior of other devices or systems.
  • Dynamic systems – concept in mathematics when a fixed standard describes the time dependence of a point in a geometric space.
  • Operations research – study of the use of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
  • Dynamics of systems – are close to understanding of behavior of complex systems in time.
  • Systems analysis – study of sets of entities that interact, including analysis of computer systems.
  • Systems theory – interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the aim of elucidating the principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all levels of nesting in all fields of research.
  • Development of systems theory – general theoretical perspective on biological development, inheritance and evolution
  • General systems theory – interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the aim of elucidating the principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all levels of nesting in all fields of research.
  • Linear time invariant systems – investigates the response of a time-invariant linear system and an arbitrary input signal.
  • Theory of the mathematical system – area of ​​mathematics used to describe the behavior of complex dynamic systems, usually by the use of differential equations or equations in differences.
  • Systems biology – several related trends in bioscience research, and a movement that is based on those trends.
  • Ecology systems – interdisciplinary field of ecology, adopting a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems.
  • Systems engineering – interdisciplinary field of engineering focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed during their life cycles.
  • Neuroscience systems – subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems.
  • Systems of psychology – branch of applied psychology that studies human behavior and experience in complex systems.

Social sciences

Social sciences – study of the social world built between human beings. The social sciences is usually limited to an anthropomorphic-centric view of these interactions with minimal emphasis on the involuntary impact of social human behavior on the external environment (physical, biological, ecological, etc.). ‘Social’ is the concept of exchange / influence of ideas, thoughts and relationship interactions (resulting in harmony, peace, self-enrichment, favoritism, malice, the pursuit of justice, etc.) between human beings. The scientific method is used in many social sciences, although adapted to the needs of social construction that are being studied.

The branches of the social sciences are  anthropology, archaeology, business administration, communication, criminology, economics, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, some branches of psychology (results of which can not be replicated or validated easily – e.g. social psychology), public health, theology, sociology and, in some contexts, geography, history and law.

Applied science

Applied science – a branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including inventions and other technological advances.

Some fields of applied science: engineering, applied mathematics, applied physics, medicine, computer science

How scientific fields differ

  • Exact science – any field of science capable of accurate quantitative expression or accurate predictions and rigorous hypothesis testing methods, especially reproducible experiments involving quantifiable predictions and measurements.
  • Fundamental science – the science that describes the most basic objects, forces, the relations between them and the laws that govern them, so that all other phenomena can be, in principle, derived from them following the logic of scientific reductionism.
  • Hard and soft science – colloquial terms often used when comparing the scientific fields of academic research or scholarships, with the hard meaning perceived as more scientific, rigorous or precise.

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