Phenomena
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(Cloud chamber phenomena. Scientists use phenomena to refine some hypotheses and sometimes to disprove a theory. ) A phenomenon is the way in which a thing, a fact of the physical world (object, action …), psychic (emotion, thought …) or … Read More

Scientific methods
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The acquired knowledge can only be qualified as scientific if the scientificity of the obtaining process has been demonstrated. The “scientific method” (ancient Greek methodos, “pursuit, research, plan”) is “the set of reasoned processes to achieve a goal; this one … Read More

Vibrations
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A vibration is a mechanical oscillation motion around a stable equilibrium position or an average trajectory. The vibration of a system can be free or forced. According to the type and nature of vibration, and according to the measuring means, … Read More

Christian ethics
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The Christian ethics (theological ethics) is one of the basic disciplines of theology. It deals with the reflection of the moral good in the context of Christian theology. According to the older definition, Christian ethics is “the science of the … Read More

Temperature, Heat, Expansion
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 (The Sun, the main source of heat on Earth.) Temperature Temperature is a physical quantity measured using a thermometer and studied in thermometry. In everyday life, it is connected to the sensations of cold and heat, coming from the heat … Read More

Confucianism
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(Confucius, from a Chinese bronze) Confucianism, Rújiā “school of the literati” then Rúxué “teaching of the literati”, is one of the greatest philosophical, moral, political and to a lesser extent religious schools of China. It developed over two millennia from … Read More

Dimensional analysis
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(The International Prototype Kilogram (IPK) is an artefact standard or prototype that is defined to be exactly one kilogram mass.) Dimensional analysis is a practical method to verify the homogeneity of a physical formula through its dimensional equations, that is … Read More

The history of contemporary philosophy
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 (A. von Menzel, The iron rolling mill (1875). The Industrial Revolution brings about a change in living conditions, which reflects on philosophical, economic and political thought.) The philosophy of the nineteenth century is divided into different directions. It includes Romantic … Read More

Aesthetics and philosophy of art
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The philosophy of art designates both the almost constant interest of philosophers for art since antiquity and a discipline more or less conceived as autonomous since the end of the eighteenth century. For the historian of philosophy Michel Blay, two … Read More

Scientific methods within the context of justification
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Hans Reichenbach, who was close to logical positivism, distinguished between the context of justification and the context of discovery. The context of discovery refers to the process that results in proposing a theoretical result, whereas the context of justification concerns … Read More

Mind
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(Representation of faculties of the human mind.) The mind is the totality of phenomena and mental faculties: perception, affectivity, intuition, thought, concept, judgment, morality … In many religious traditions, it is a principle of the intangible life of the human … Read More

Aristotle on motion
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(The beginning of physics in Latin translation in a Venetian incunabulum of 1483 adorned with hand-painted miniatures: New York, Morgan Library & Museum) Physics is next to the Metaphysics and Nicomachean Ethics of the major works of Aristotle . It deals with the explanation (definition) of some basic terms that are used … Read More

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