Quasi instant voice translation
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Translation in real time, in reality “near real time”, carried out by specialized software, is aprocess not yet operational, requiring simultaneously control in three main steps to be performed for each group of spoken words in a few tenths of … Read More

Parallel text
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Parallel text, or multilingual concordance, is a computer tool for managing parallel corpus. By metonymy, the multilingual concordance also designates the corpus. A parallel corpus is a collection of texts by groups such as two by two in each group, … Read More

Approaches and evolution in machine translation
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Approaches Direct approach: word for word translation of the source text to the target text reformulation of the word order in the target text translated Interlanguage approach: construction of the interlingua representation of the source text construction of the target … Read More

Difficulties in machine translation
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Ambiguities in the source language Lexical ambiguities: polysemy. In The Challenge of Languages, Claude Piron said that May 4, 1991 he asked a machine to translate in French: In such a case, you can make a very good case for … Read More

Translation process in machine translation
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(Vauquois Triangle, model for the foundation of the machine translation) The translation process (in the human sense) can be divided into three phases: understanding: assimilation of the meaning conveyed by a text, the mean of a writer …; deverbalisation: forgetting … Read More

Prerequisites and approaches in machine translation
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The term ” machine translation ” means translation in the strict sense of a text (or audio chat, live or delayed) made entirely by one or more computer programs, without a human translator has to intervene. Sometimes this term includes … Read More

Across Systems
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Across Systems, based in Karlsbad, Germany, and Glendale, California, is the manufacturer of the Across Language Server, an independent technology for the linguistic supply chain. Across Systems, originally a division of Nero AG, was incorporated as Across Systems GmbH in … Read More

BLEU Performance
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BLEU has frequently been reported as correlating well with human judgement,[1][2][3] and remains a benchmark for the assessment of any new evaluation metric. There are however a number of criticisms that have been voiced. It has been noted that although … Read More

Languages features comparison in machine translatioon – To English language
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The following table compares the amount of languages which the following machine translation programs can translate between. (Moses allows to train translation models for any language pair, though collections of translated texts (parallel corpus) need to be provided.) This is … Read More

BLEU
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BLEU (Bilingual Evaluation Understudy) is an algorithm for evaluating the quality of text which has been machine-translated from one natural language to another. Quality is considered to be the correspondence between a machine’s output and that of a human: “the … Read More

Comparison of machine translation applications
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Apertium A machine translation application is a program which can translate text or speech from one natural language to another. Machine translation applications are essential to the modern language industry. Please see the individual products’ articles for further information. General … Read More

METEOR
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The METEOR metric is designed to address some of the deficiencies inherent in the BLEU metric. The metric is based on the weighted harmonic mean of unigram precision and unigram recall. The metric was designed after research by Lavie (2004) … Read More

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