Language Search Engine Software
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New to the translation industry, Language Search Engine software is typically an Internet based system that works similarly to Internet search engines. Rather than searching the Internet, however, a language search engine searches a large repository of Translation Memories to … Read More

BLEU
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BLEU was one of the first metrics to report high correlation with human judgements of quality. The metric is currently one of the most popular in the field. The central idea behind the metric is that “the closer a machine … Read More

Language identification
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Language identification is the process of determining which natural language given content is in. Traditionally, identification of written language – as practiced, for instance, in library science – has relied on manually identifying frequent words and letters known to be … Read More

Translation memory software
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Translation memory (TM) programs store previously translated source texts and their equivalent target texts in a database and retrieve related segments during the translation of new texts. Such programs split the source text into manageable units known as “segments”. A … Read More

Automatic evaluation
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In the context of this article, a metric will be understood as a measurement. A metric for the evaluation of machine translation output is a measurement of the quality of the output. The quality of a translation is inherently subjective, … Read More

Machine translation applications
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There are now many software programs for translating natural language, several of them online, such as: SYSTRAN, which powers Yahoo’s Babel Fish Promt, which powers online translation services at Voila.fr and Orange.fr Although no system provides the holy grail of … Read More

Disambiguation in machine translation
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Word-sense disambiguation concerns finding a suitable translation when a word can have more than one meaning. The problem was first raised in the 1950s by Yehoshua Bar-Hillel.[1] He pointed out that without a “universal encyclopedia”, a machine would never be … Read More

CAT Overview
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Computer-assisted translation is a broad and imprecise term covering a range of tools, from the fairly simple to the more complicated. These can include: Spell checkers, either built into word processing software, or add-on programs; Grammar checkers, again either built … Read More

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
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As part of the Human Language Technologies Program, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) created a methodology to evaluate machine translation systems, and continues to perform evaluations based on this methodology. The evaluation programme was instigated in 1991, and continues … Read More

Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee (ALPAC)
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One of the constituent parts of the ALPAC report was a study comparing different levels of human translation with machine translation output, using human subjects as judges. The human judges were specially trained for the purpose. The evaluation study compared … Read More

Approaches in machine translation
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Pyramid showing comparative depths of intermediary representation, interlingual machine translation at the peak, followed by transfer-based, then direct translation. Machine translation can use a method based on linguistic rules, which means that words will be translated in a linguistic way … Read More

Computer-assisted translation
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Computer-assisted translation, computer-aided translation, or CAT is a form of translation wherein a human translator translates texts using computer software designed to support and facilitate the translation process. Computer-assisted translation is sometimes called machine-assisted, or machine-aided, translation. Computer-assisted translation and … Read More

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