Romania Translation Style Guide
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Full name: Romania. The administrative units into which Romania is divided are called ‘judeţe’ (counties). Official language: Romanian. Geography Cities Write Bucharest for Bucureşti, but use the native forms in all other cases. Be aware that Hungarian texts may use … Read More

Ursula K. Le Guin
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“Translation is entirely mysterious. Increasingly I have felt that the art of writing is itself translating, or more like translating than it is like anything else. What is the other text, the original? I have no answer. I suppose it … Read More

Approaches and evolution in machine translation
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Approaches Direct approach: word for word translation of the source text to the target text reformulation of the word order in the target text translated Interlanguage approach: construction of the interlingua representation of the source text construction of the target … Read More

English Translation Style Guide for EU – OFFICIAL LANGUAGES, CURRENCIES AND EXTERNAL RELATIONS
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OFFICIAL LANGUAGES AND CURRENCIES OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Official/working/procedural languages. The relevant regulations do not distinguish between official and working languages. Internally, however, the Commission works in three languages — English, French and German — unofficially referred to as the ‘procedural languages’. … Read More

Portugal Translation Style Guide
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Full name: Portuguese Republic. Official language: Portuguese. Geography Cities Write Lisbon, but use the native form Porto (not Oporto). Rivers Write Tagus for Tejo. Islands Use the Azores. Regions PORTUGAL > PORTUGAL Continente > Continental Portugal Norte > North Algarve … Read More

EU web translation as a genre
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While the word genre more frequently refers to a category of texts than to a set of translations or to the translation process itself, it can legitimately be applied in relation to web translation activity, as it can refer both … Read More

Difficulties in machine translation
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Ambiguities in the source language Lexical ambiguities: polysemy. In The Challenge of Languages, Claude Piron said that May 4, 1991 he asked a machine to translate in French: In such a case, you can make a very good case for … Read More

English Translation Style Guide for EU – MEMBER STATES
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When translating a document that lists the Member States in alphabetical order, rearrange the list into English alphabetical order. If the Member States are listed in protocol order, do not change the order. The list of Member States in protocol … Read More

Poland Translation Style Guide
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Full name: Republic of Poland. Official language: Polish. Geography Cities Write Warsaw for Warszawa, but use the native forms in all other cases, including Kraków (rather than Cracow). Be aware that German names exist for many towns and cities in … Read More

Translation theory
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Anthony PYM: Translation theory as historical problem-solving”. Intercultural Communication Review 9 (2011).    “Recent calls for non – Western translation theories raise the more basic question of where Western thought comes from and how it is historically conditioned. Here we … Read More

Surtitles
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Surtitle is broadcast during a live performance by any technical means whatsoever, of translation in the public language, of what is recited or sung on stage. Comments Surtitle is mainly used for plays performed in foreign languages, foreign operas or … Read More

English Translation Style Guide for EU – EU FINANCES
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Own resources. The European Union and its institutions are essentially funded from own resources, i.e. revenue that the EU receives as of right. These fall into three categories: traditional own resources (customs duties, agricultural duties and sugar levies), a VAT-based … Read More

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