Civil disobedience
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(Sebastian Loscher: Allegory of Justice (1536)) Civil disobedience is the public and accepted refusal to submit to a law, regulation, organization or power deemed unfair by those who challenge it, while making this refusal a peaceful weapon of combat. The … Read More

Taxonomies
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(Phylogenetic trees have the shape of dendrograms, each node of the dendrogram corresponds to a clade. ) Taxonomy (from the Greek: ταξις, taxis, ordering and νομος, nomos, norm or rule) is, in its most general sense, the discipline of classification. … Read More

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, by Immanuel Kant
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(Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (German: Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals), by Immanuel Kant … Read More

Optics
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(Optics includes study of dispersion of light. ) Optics is the branch of electromagnetism that describes the behavior and properties of light and its interaction with matter (photometry). The perspective deals with what are called the optical phenomena, on the … Read More

Aristotelianism
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(Aristotle, by Francesco Hayez) Aristotelianism is the name given to the doctrine derived from the works of Aristotle, from the Persian philosopher Avicenna and the Andalusian philosopher Averroes in particular, then gradually adopted in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by … Read More

A debate on Events and Particulars
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This article, perhaps more than others, is rather an exercise of linguistic logics. Roderick Chisholm, in “The Logical Form of Action Sentences, criticized an earlier article of Davidson, “The Logical Form of Action Sentences,” proposing a different theory. Davidson analyzes … Read More

Natural philosophy
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Natural philosophy, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is an expression that applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that reigned before the development of modern science. Traditionally allied with natural theology, it used to designate … Read More

Electrostatics
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(Lightning causing a flash of light over Oradea in Romania.) Electrostatics is the branch of physics that studies the phenomena created by static electric charges for the observer. The obtained laws can be generalized to variable (quasi-electrostatic) systems provided that … Read More

Art and attention to the sensitive
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 (Paul Cézanne, The Card Players 1892-95) Art is not content to copy nature. However, he does not turn away from her, but goes back to the source. In Cézanne’s painting, Merleau-Ponty reminds us, it is never about color as a … Read More

Phenomena
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(Cloud chamber phenomena. Scientists use phenomena to refine some hypotheses and sometimes to disprove a theory. ) A phenomenon is the way in which a thing, a fact of the physical world (object, action …), psychic (emotion, thought …) or … Read More

Scientific methods
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The acquired knowledge can only be qualified as scientific if the scientificity of the obtaining process has been demonstrated. The “scientific method” (ancient Greek methodos, “pursuit, research, plan”) is “the set of reasoned processes to achieve a goal; this one … Read More

Vibrations
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A vibration is a mechanical oscillation motion around a stable equilibrium position or an average trajectory. The vibration of a system can be free or forced. According to the type and nature of vibration, and according to the measuring means, … Read More

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