Past evolution of global temperatures and consequences
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(For 400,000 years, the Earth has experienced four cycles of glaciation. ) Climatic cycles The climate variations are correlated with those of insolation, Milanković parameters, albedo, solar cycles and atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and aerosols. … Read More

Infographic: Electric circuits
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An electrical circuit is a set of conductors and electrical or electronic components traversed by an electric current. The electrokinetic study of an electrical circuit consists in determining, at each place, the intensity of the current and the voltage. The … Read More

Effects of global warming on weather and oceans
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Tropical cyclones (Evolution of tropical storms (in blue), hurricanes (in green) and major hurricanes (category 3) (in red), in the North Atlantic.) The scientific consensus in the 2007 IPCC report is that the intensity of tropical cyclones is likely to … Read More

Effects of global warming on Earth geophysics, agriculture and and biodiversity
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Geophysical and seismic effects  (Projections of global mean sea level rise by Parris and others. Probabilities have not been assigned to these projections. Therefore, none of these projections should be interpreted as a “best estimate” of future sea level rise. … Read More

Global warming: Polar ice caps, permafrost thaw and retreat of mountain glaciers
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Polar ice caps The mass results of polar ice caps in Antarctica and Greenland has been negative for the past decade, although some parts of Antarctica are thickening as a result of increased snowfall. Mass loss occurs in coastal areas … Read More

Global warming: Melting of sea ice
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 (2005 and 2007 had minimum records of Arctic sea ice extent. 10 years later (2017) Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska warming worsened, no sea ​​ice recovery) Several studies indicate that sea ice is shrinking. The surface of the sea … Read More

Plato about climate change
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(Rhamnous, an ancient Greek city in Attica.) Plato, the Greek philosopher, describes the effect of local climate change in Attica in his Critias: “The land was the best in the world, and was therefore able in those days to support … Read More

Scientific methods
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(René Descartes, French philosopher, mathematician and physicist, actor of the scientific revolution, considered as the founder of modern philosophy.) The scientific method refers to the set of canons guiding or having to guide the production process of scientific knowledge, whether … Read More

Mechanics
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(Arabic manuscript about a machine. Unknown date (estimated: 16th-19th centuries). Mechanics is a branch of physics whose object is the study of motion, deformations or equilibrium states of physical systems. This science aims to describe the movements of different kinds … Read More

Acoustics
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(Omnidirectional sound source in anechoic chamber (Czech Technical Univerzity, Prague). ) Acoustics is the science of sound (physics). The discipline has extended its field to the study of mechanical waves within gases, liquids, but also within solids, whatever the frequency … Read More

Epistemology and science
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Field of application of epistemology For a long time, epistemology has focused exclusively on the content of science, the history of this content, and the genealogy of the advances of this content. Science as a human institution was left to … Read More

Global warming: Temperature evolution
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 (Annual (thin lines) and five-year lowess smooth (thick lines) for the temperature anomalies averaged over the Earth’s land area and sea surface temperature anomalies (blue line) averaged over the part of the ocean that is free of ice at all … Read More

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