Virus Ontology: Thing, Being, Process, or Information?

|

The study of viruses raises pressing conceptual and philosophical questions about their nature, their classification, (O’Malley 2014, 45–94) (Mayr 1953) and their place within the biological world. A major set of problems concerns the individuality and diachronic identity of a … Read More

What came first: the virus or the cell?

|

Viruses reproduce only inside the living cells of organisms, (Wu 2020) being known so far more than 6,000 species of viruses. (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 2020) When it infects a cell, the viruses force it to rapidly … Read More

Unsolved problems in physics, in theory and observations

|

This is a list of some of the great unsolved problems in physics. During the long-term process of evolving theories according to the scientific method, there is an intermediary phase between two periods of stability where questions remain unanswered and … Read More

Atomic nucleus

|

(Atomic nucleus of helium.) The atomic nucleus refers to the region located in the center of an atom made up of protons and neutrons (nucleons). The size of the nucleus (of the order of a femtometer, ie 10-15 meters) is … Read More

Electromagnetic radiation – Electromagnetic waves

|

(Distribution of electromagnetic radiation. ) Electromagnetic radiation refers to a form of linear energy transfer. Visible light is electromagnetic radiation, but is only a small slice of the broad electromagnetic spectrum. The propagation of this radiation, of one or more … Read More

Electricity

|

(Power line near a railway track in Poland. ) Electricity is the effect of the movement of charged particles inside a conductive material, under the effect of a potential difference at the ends thereof. This physical phenomenon is present in … Read More

Sound

|

Sound is a mechanical vibration of a fluid, which propagates in the form of longitudinal waves thanks to the elastic deformation of this fluid. Human beings, like many animals, experience this vibration through the sense of hearing. Acoustics is the … Read More

Study of mechanics

|

  The main principles of mechanics Principle of energy conservation For any physical object with mass, any change in its state results in the expenditure or dissipation of energy. Principle of least action The idea of ​​the principle of least … Read More

Physics disciplines, theories and methods

|

Disciplines Contemporary physics research is divided into various disciplines that study different aspects of the physical world. Field(s) Disciplines Main theories Some concepts Astrophysics and Mechanics Cosmology, Planetology, Plasma Physics, Big Bang Astroparticles Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, General Relativity, Dark … Read More

Discourse on science

|

Epistemology The term “epistemology” replaces that of philosophy of science at the start of the 20th century. It is a neologism constructed by James Frederick Ferrier, in his work Institutes of metaphysics (1854). The word is composed on the Greek … Read More

Failure of genetic modification of human embryos

|

(Views of a fetus in the womb, detail from a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci) A team of scientists, led by biologist Kathy Niakan of the Francis Crick Institute, used the genetically engineered CRISPR gene editing technique to create genetically … Read More

Ethics of Emotional Intelligence in Organizations

|

According to Richard Sennett, concepts such as flexibility, decentralization and control, work ethic and teamwork in the New Economy have led to disorientation and emotional and psychological undermining of the individual, stating that “a regime which provides human beings no … Read More

1 2 3 4 19