Electrostatics
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(Lightning causing a flash of light over Oradea in Romania.) Electrostatics is the branch of physics that studies the phenomena created by static electric charges for the observer. The obtained laws can be generalized to variable (quasi-electrostatic) systems provided that … Read More

Phenomena
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(Cloud chamber phenomena. Scientists use phenomena to refine some hypotheses and sometimes to disprove a theory. ) A phenomenon is the way in which a thing, a fact of the physical world (object, action …), psychic (emotion, thought …) or … Read More

Vibrations
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A vibration is a mechanical oscillation motion around a stable equilibrium position or an average trajectory. The vibration of a system can be free or forced. According to the type and nature of vibration, and according to the measuring means, … Read More

Temperature, Heat, Expansion
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 (The Sun, the main source of heat on Earth.) Temperature Temperature is a physical quantity measured using a thermometer and studied in thermometry. In everyday life, it is connected to the sensations of cold and heat, coming from the heat … Read More

Dimensional analysis
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(The International Prototype Kilogram (IPK) is an artefact standard or prototype that is defined to be exactly one kilogram mass.) Dimensional analysis is a practical method to verify the homogeneity of a physical formula through its dimensional equations, that is … Read More

Scientific methods within the context of justification
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Hans Reichenbach, who was close to logical positivism, distinguished between the context of justification and the context of discovery. The context of discovery refers to the process that results in proposing a theoretical result, whereas the context of justification concerns … Read More

Aristotle on motion
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(The beginning of physics in Latin translation in a Venetian incunabulum of 1483 adorned with hand-painted miniatures: New York, Morgan Library & Museum) Physics is next to the Metaphysics and Nicomachean Ethics of the major works of Aristotle . It deals with the explanation (definition) of some basic terms that are used … Read More

Quantum states
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The state of a physical system describes all aspects of this system in order to predict the results of the experiments that can be performed. The fact that quantum mechanics is non-deterministic leads to a fundamental difference compared to the … Read More

Scientific theories
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A theory (from Greek theorein, “contemplate, observe, examine”) is a coherent set of explanations, notions or ideas on a specific subject, which may include laws and hypotheses, induced by the accumulation of facts from of observation, experimentation or, in the … Read More

Einstein’s Relativity
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(Art drawing about the theory of relativity) The theory of relativity includes both the theory of special relativity as that of general relativity formulated by Albert Einstein in the early twentieth century, who sought to resolve the incompatibility between Newtonian mechanics and electromagnetism. The theory of special relativity, published in 1905, deals with the physics of … Read More

Atomic physics
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Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems that include electrons and the atomic nucleus. It focuses primarily on the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and how it is modified. This definition encompasses both … Read More

Scientific research
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Scientific research is, first and foremost, all actions undertaken to produce and develop scientific knowledge. By metonymic extension, this term is also used in the social, economic, institutional and legal context of these actions. History of scientific research (Basrelief sculpture … Read More

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