Past evolution of global temperatures and consequences
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(For 400,000 years, the Earth has experienced four cycles of glaciation. ) Climatic cycles The climate variations are correlated with those of insolation, Milanković parameters, albedo, solar cycles and atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and aerosols. … Read More

Effects of global warming on weather and oceans
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Tropical cyclones (Evolution of tropical storms (in blue), hurricanes (in green) and major hurricanes (category 3) (in red), in the North Atlantic.) The scientific consensus in the 2007 IPCC report is that the intensity of tropical cyclones is likely to … Read More

Effects of global warming on Earth geophysics, agriculture and and biodiversity
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Geophysical and seismic effects  (Projections of global mean sea level rise by Parris and others. Probabilities have not been assigned to these projections. Therefore, none of these projections should be interpreted as a “best estimate” of future sea level rise. … Read More

Global warming: Polar ice caps, permafrost thaw and retreat of mountain glaciers
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Polar ice caps The mass results of polar ice caps in Antarctica and Greenland has been negative for the past decade, although some parts of Antarctica are thickening as a result of increased snowfall. Mass loss occurs in coastal areas … Read More

Global warming: Melting of sea ice
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 (2005 and 2007 had minimum records of Arctic sea ice extent. 10 years later (2017) Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska warming worsened, no sea ​​ice recovery) Several studies indicate that sea ice is shrinking. The surface of the sea … Read More

Plato about climate change
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(Rhamnous, an ancient Greek city in Attica.) Plato, the Greek philosopher, describes the effect of local climate change in Attica in his Critias: “The land was the best in the world, and was therefore able in those days to support … Read More

Global warming: Temperature evolution
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 (Annual (thin lines) and five-year lowess smooth (thick lines) for the temperature anomalies averaged over the Earth’s land area and sea surface temperature anomalies (blue line) averaged over the part of the ocean that is free of ice at all … Read More

Observations related to the current global warming
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Various changes observed around the world have led to the conclusion of global warming. The Global Humanitarian Forum, Kofi Annan’s Think Tank, estimates in the first study on the human impact of global warming in 2009, to 300,000 deaths per … Read More

Prospective of short and medium term for abrupt climate changes
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(The Permian–Triassic extinction event, labelled “P-Tr” here, is the most significant extinction event in this plot for marine genera, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Extinction_intensity.svg) In the years 1980-1990, such risks imagined for the future were those related to the consequences of a major nuclear … Read More

Global dimming
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(This image on the Eastern China was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard of Aqua satellite of NASA, October 16, 2002. The scene shows dozens of fires burning on the surface (red dots) and a thick smoke … Read More

Adaptation to global warming
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Adaptation to climate change or global warming refers to strategies, initiatives and measures individual or collective (companies, associations, communities, etc.) aimed, through appropriate measures, to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual or expected effects of climate … Read More

Scientific research on climate change
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(Global mean land-ocean temperature change since 1880, relative to the 1951–1980 mean. The black line is the annual mean and the red line is the 5-year running mean. The green bars show uncertainty estimates. Source: NASA GISS) The positioning of … Read More

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