Direct democracy
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(A Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 2006, Switzerland. ) Direct democracy is a political system in which citizens directly exercise power without the intermediary of representatives. Initially equivalent to the concept of democracy since … Read More

Consequentialism
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Consequentialism is part of the teleological ethics and constitutes the set of moral theories which maintain that it is the consequences of a given action which must constitute the basis of any moral judgment of the said action. Thus, from … Read More

Animal in philosophy
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Ancient philosophy has bequeathed its vision of the animal from a problem of man in the world: the Stoics have a dogmatic and anthropocentric vision of the animal, while Academicians have a holistic vision, placing the general history of animals … Read More

Democracy
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(A map of the world showing the results of The Economist’s Democracy Index survey for 2017. ) Full democracies    9–10    8–8.9 Flawed democracies    7–7.9    6–6.9 Hybrid regimes    5–5.9    4–4.9 Authoritarian regimes    3–3.9    … Read More

Fine-tuned Universe – The Fine Tuning Argument
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 (The Discovery Institute’s Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture used banners based on The Creation of Adam from the Sistine Chapel. Later it used a less religious image, then was renamed the Center for Science and Culture.) In … Read More

Plato about climate change
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(Rhamnous, an ancient Greek city in Attica.) Plato, the Greek philosopher, describes the effect of local climate change in Attica in his Critias: “The land was the best in the world, and was therefore able in those days to support … Read More

Induction (Inductive reasoning)
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Induction is historically the name used to signify a kind of reasoning that proposes to look for general laws from the observation of particular facts, on a probabilistic basis. At present, high school geography curricula involve representative case studies of … Read More

Scientific methods
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(René Descartes, French philosopher, mathematician and physicist, actor of the scientific revolution, considered as the founder of modern philosophy.) The scientific method refers to the set of canons guiding or having to guide the production process of scientific knowledge, whether … Read More

Duty-based theories
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Duty-based morals establish the moral character of our actions on the concept of obligation. This type of morality is conceivable regardless of any consequences that may result from our actions. For example, according to Kant, one should not lie to … Read More

Can art be defined? Art and philosophy
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(Pompeii, House VII, 2, 6: Paquius Proculus and his wife, National Archaeological Museum of Naples, fresco of the first century.) Since at least antiquity, philosophy has questioned the nature of art. Plato in the Ion and Hippias Major or Aristotle … Read More

Philosophy of psychology
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The philosophy of psychology refers to questions about the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. Some of these questions are epistemological concerns of the methodology of psychological study. For example : What is the most appropriate method for psychology: mentalism, behaviorism, … Read More

Intelligent design argument
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The teleological argument (physico-theological argument, argument from design, or intelligent design argument) is the argument about the existence of God which is based on perceptible evidence of order, intention, design, or direction – or a combination of these – in … Read More

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