Unsolved problems in physics, in theory and observations

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This is a list of some of the great unsolved problems in physics. During the long-term process of evolving theories according to the scientific method, there is an intermediary phase between two periods of stability where questions remain unanswered and … Read More

Atomic nucleus

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(Atomic nucleus of helium.) The atomic nucleus refers to the region located in the center of an atom made up of protons and neutrons (nucleons). The size of the nucleus (of the order of a femtometer, ie 10-15 meters) is … Read More

Electromagnetic radiation – Electromagnetic waves

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(Distribution of electromagnetic radiation. ) Electromagnetic radiation refers to a form of linear energy transfer. Visible light is electromagnetic radiation, but is only a small slice of the broad electromagnetic spectrum. The propagation of this radiation, of one or more … Read More

Electricity

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(Power line near a railway track in Poland. ) Electricity is the effect of the movement of charged particles inside a conductive material, under the effect of a potential difference at the ends thereof. This physical phenomenon is present in … Read More

Sound

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Sound is a mechanical vibration of a fluid, which propagates in the form of longitudinal waves thanks to the elastic deformation of this fluid. Human beings, like many animals, experience this vibration through the sense of hearing. Acoustics is the … Read More

Study of mechanics

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  The main principles of mechanics Principle of energy conservation For any physical object with mass, any change in its state results in the expenditure or dissipation of energy. Principle of least action The idea of ​​the principle of least … Read More

Physics disciplines, theories and methods

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Disciplines Contemporary physics research is divided into various disciplines that study different aspects of the physical world. Field(s) Disciplines Main theories Some concepts Astrophysics and Mechanics Cosmology, Planetology, Plasma Physics, Big Bang Astroparticles Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, General Relativity, Dark … Read More

Heuristics of String Theory

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The logical positivists would have considered string theory as a speculative metaphysics. The instrumentalist aspect of logical positivism does not correspond with the opinions of string theorists. From the point of view of Popper’s falsifiability, [1] we clearly distinguish between … Read More

Epistemology of String Theory in Quantum Gravity

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In quantum field theory, the main obstacle is the occurrence of the untreatable infinities in the interactions of the particles due to the possibility of arbitrary distances between the point particles. Strings, as extended objects, provide a better framework, which … Read More

Epistemology of Canonical Quantum Gravity – Loop Quantum Gravity

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In the interpretation of canonical quantum gravity (CQG), gravity appears as a geometric pseudoforce, is reduced to spacetime geometry and becomes a simple effect of spacetime curvature. [1] (Maudlin[2]). Lehmkuhl[3] argues that canonical formalism does not confirm this interpretation. General … Read More

Heuristics and Tests of Quantum Gravity

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Heuristics of quantum gravity For the attempt to create a gravitational quantum theory, there are several research programs, some of which became obsolete over time due to the higher heuristic power of other programs. J. Butterfield thus distinguishes three major … Read More

Epistemology of Quantum Gravity

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Recent decades indicate “a blurring of distinction between physical science and mathematical abstraction … [reflecting] a growing tendency to accept, and in some cases ignore, serious testability problems.” [1] Oldershaw lists dozens of major non-testing issues in the pre-instrumentalist era. … Read More

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