Heuristics of String Theory

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The logical positivists would have considered string theory as a speculative metaphysics. The instrumentalist aspect of logical positivism does not correspond with the opinions of string theorists. From the point of view of Popper’s falsifiability, [1] we clearly distinguish between … Read More

Epistemology of String Theory in Quantum Gravity

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In quantum field theory, the main obstacle is the occurrence of the untreatable infinities in the interactions of the particles due to the possibility of arbitrary distances between the point particles. Strings, as extended objects, provide a better framework, which … Read More

Epistemology of Canonical Quantum Gravity – Loop Quantum Gravity

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In the interpretation of canonical quantum gravity (CQG), gravity appears as a geometric pseudoforce, is reduced to spacetime geometry and becomes a simple effect of spacetime curvature. [1] (Maudlin[2]). Lehmkuhl[3] argues that canonical formalism does not confirm this interpretation. General … Read More

Heuristics and Tests of Quantum Gravity

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Heuristics of quantum gravity For the attempt to create a gravitational quantum theory, there are several research programs, some of which became obsolete over time due to the higher heuristic power of other programs. J. Butterfield thus distinguishes three major … Read More

Epistemology of Quantum Gravity

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Recent decades indicate “a blurring of distinction between physical science and mathematical abstraction … [reflecting] a growing tendency to accept, and in some cases ignore, serious testability problems.” [1] Oldershaw lists dozens of major non-testing issues in the pre-instrumentalist era. … Read More

Modern Tests of Relativistic Gravitational Theories

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Dicke and Schiff established a framework for testing general relativity, [1] including through null experiments and using the physics of space exploration, electronics and condensed matter, such as the Pound-Rebka experiment and laser interferometry. The gravitational lens tests and the … Read More

Henri Poincaré, Quanta hypothesis: Conclusions

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We see what is the state of the question; the ancient theories, which hitherto seemed to account for all known phenomena, have encountered an unexpected obstacle. It seemed that a modification was necessary. A hypothesis was first presented in Mr. … Read More

Henri Poincaré, Quanta hypothesis: The new theory of Planck

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Let us go back to less general and more precise problems, for example to the theory of radiation. Mr. Planck has devised an amendment to his first theory, and I would like to say a few words about it. According … Read More

Henri Poincaré, Quanta hypothesis: Quanta of action

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The new design is seductive by a certain side; for some time the tendency has been to atomism, matter appears to us as formed of indivisible atoms, and the electricity is no longer continuous, it is no longer divisible to … Read More

Schrödinger equation

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Schrödinger equation, developed by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1925, is a fundamental equation in quantum mechanics. It describes the evolution over time of a massive non-relativistic particle, and thus fulfills the same role as the fundamental relation of … Read More

Quantum states

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The state of a physical system describes all aspects of this system in order to predict the results of the experiments that can be performed. The fact that quantum mechanics is non-deterministic leads to a fundamental difference compared to the … Read More