Causal Theory of Reference of Saul Kripke

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Since the 1960s, Kripke has been a central figure in several fields related to mathematical logic, language philosophy, mathematical philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology and set theory. He had influential and original contributions to logic, especially modal logic, and analytical philosophy, with … Read More

Henri Poincaré, Reports on Matter and Ether

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(Conference at the French Society of Physics, April 11, 1912.) When Mr. Abraham came to ask me to close the series of lectures organized by the French Society of Physics, I was at first about to refuse; it seemed to … Read More

Heuristics of Newtonian Gravity

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The classic example of a successful research program is Newton’s gravitational theory, probably the most successful Lakatosian research program. Initially, Newton’s gravitational theory faced a lot of “anomalies” (“counterexamples”) and contradicted the observational theories that supported these anomalies. But supporters … Read More

Philosophical Aspects of Big Data

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Big Data can generate, through inferences, new knowledge and perspectives. The paradigm that results from using Big Data creates new opportunities. One of the major concerns in the Big Data case is that data scientists tend to work with data … Read More

Epistemology of Newtonian Gravity

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In certain research programs, such as the mechanistic theory of the universe according to which the universe is a huge clock (and a system of vortices) with the push as the sole cause of movement, the particular Cartesian metaphysics functioned … Read More

The causal theory of reference

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John Stuart Mill argued that names can be divided into two types: connotative and non-connotative. Proper names are the only names of objects that are not connotative and do not have a strictly meaning. (Mill 1882) John Searle argues that … Read More

Henri Poincaré, Quanta hypothesis: Quanta of action

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The new design is seductive by a certain side; for some time the tendency has been to atomism, matter appears to us as formed of indivisible atoms, and the electricity is no longer continuous, it is no longer divisible to … Read More

A natural extension of the methodology of the scientific research programmes of Imre Lakatos

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Both general relativity and quantum mechanics are paradigms in Kuhn’s sense[1]. Both coexist simultaneously. But in Kuhn’s scheme there is no such situation in which two simultaneous paradigms coexist peacefully. Kuhn’s paradigm is defined primarily from a sociological point of … Read More

Henri Poincaré, Quanta hypothesis

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One wonders if Mechanics is not on the eve of a new upheaval; recently a meeting was held at Brussels, attended by some twenty physicists of various nationalities, and at each moment they might have been heard to speak of … Read More

Henri Poincaré, Mathematics and logic

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A few years ago, I had the opportunity to expose some ideas about the logic of the infinite; on the use of the infinite in Mathematics, on the use made of it since Cantor; I explained why I did not … Read More

Henri Poincaré, The logic of infinity: An overview

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The antinomies to which certain logicians have been led come from the fact that they could not avoid certain vicious circles. It happened to them when they considered finite collections, but it happened to them much more often when they … Read More

Henri Poincaré, The logic of infinity: The use of infinity

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Is it possible to reason about objects that can notbe defined in a finite number of words? Is it even possible to talk about it knowing what one is talking about, and by saying something other than empty words? Or … Read More

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