Aesthetics in Middle Ages, Renaissance and XVII – XVIII centuries
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Middle Ages  (Teaching Boethius, manuscript of the Consolation of Philosophy, 1385.) The aesthetics of the Middle Ages take up the principles of Neoplatonism by relating them to the theological model of Christianity. It is considered then that in artistic creation … Read More

Aesthetics in Antiquity
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In its broadest definition, aesthetics is concerned with sensory perceptions, the essence and perception of beauty, emotions and judgments related to perceptions, as well as art in all its forms (music, painting, gastronomy, etc.) and all its aspects (work, creativity, … Read More

Relationship between perception and knowledge – Conceptualism
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According to some analyzes, the intentional content of perception is entirely conceptual. One can not perceive an object without mobilizing some concept of that object and without forming, or being willing to form, any belief about it. (The Müller-Lyer illusion … Read More

Non-realistic theories in the philosophy of perception
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Phenomenalism opposes the realism of perception by considering that perception gives us access only to complexes of sensitive data, which do not exist independently of the fact of being or being able to be perceived. The classical origin of phenomenalism … Read More

Mental states in philosophy of mind
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Qualia The qualia, in the singular quale, are defined as the properties of the sensory experience by which it is something to perceive this or that (color, sound, etc.). They are therefore subjective effects felt and specifically associated with mental … Read More

Dualistic solutions in philosophy of mind
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Dualism consists of a set of philosophical positions about the relationship between mind and matter (or body). The dualism began with the assertion that mental phenomena are, in some respects, other than physical. One of the earliest known formulations of … Read More

Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy – Abstract of the following six meditations
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In the first, I put forward the reasons why we can generally doubt all things, especially material things, at least as long as we have no other foundations in the sciences, than those we have had until now. Or, although … Read More

Epistemological questions
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Jean Ladrière gives a definition of scientific rationality: “A rational approach, in the cognitive as in the order of action, is an approach that is accompanied by the demonstration of its validity or its legitimacy, in accordance with criteria which … Read More

Contemporary epistemology and complex epistemology
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Contemporary epistemology Criticism of logical positivism Quine and the “naturalized epistemology” With article Two Dogmas of Empiricism, Willard Van Orman Quine criticizes two central aspects of logical positivism. The first is the distinction between analytic truths and synthetic truths: there … Read More

Epistemology, from empiricism to logical positivism
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Empiricism (Isaac Newton) Empiricism postulates that all knowledge comes essentially from experience. Represented by the English philosophers Roger Bacon, John Locke and George Berkeley, this current postulates that knowledge is based on the accumulation of observations and measurable facts, from … Read More

Cartesian epistemology
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According to Hervé Barreau, modern epistemology derives from Kant’s criticism in the eighteenth century and from the positivism of Comte in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. But it also draws on older traditions, including ancient and Cartesian traditions. It was … Read More

Epistemology and science
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Field of application of epistemology For a long time, epistemology has focused exclusively on the content of science, the history of this content, and the genealogy of the advances of this content. Science as a human institution was left to … Read More

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