Philosophical analysis of faith
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(Allegory and symbols of faith in Christianity.) Faith, according to the most common meaning, is the disposition to accept as true information that is not directly known, based on the authority of others (teacher, friend, a document, etc.). In the … Read More

Scientific laws
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A scientific law is a scientific proposition that affirms a constant relationship between two or more variables or factors, each of which represents a property or measurement of specific systems. It is also defined as a constant and invariable rule and norm of things, arising from its first cause or its qualities and conditions. It … Read More

Propositional logic
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Propositional logic (propositional calculus, statement logic, sentential calculus, sentential logic, or sometimes zeroth-order logic) is part of the mathematical logic. Its purpose is the study of the logical relations between “propositions” and defines the formal laws according to which the … Read More

Knowledge in philosophy
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In philosophy, it is studied above all knowledge in the sense of the state of the one who knows something. The known things themselves are also knowledge, but this second notion is not that which interests the philosophers. Likewise, knowledge, … Read More

Mind–body problem – Dualism – Descartes
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 (Is there a spirit in the machine?) The mind-body problem raises the question of the relationship between the human body, the brain in particular, and the mind. Although this problem has existed almost since the beginning of philosophy (see Plato), … Read More

Civil disobedience
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(Sebastian Loscher: Allegory of Justice (1536)) Civil disobedience is the public and accepted refusal to submit to a law, regulation, organization or power deemed unfair by those who challenge it, while making this refusal a peaceful weapon of combat. The … Read More

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, by Immanuel Kant
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(Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (German: Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals), by Immanuel Kant … Read More

Aristotelianism
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(Aristotle, by Francesco Hayez) Aristotelianism is the name given to the doctrine derived from the works of Aristotle, from the Persian philosopher Avicenna and the Andalusian philosopher Averroes in particular, then gradually adopted in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by … Read More

A debate on Events and Particulars
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This article, perhaps more than others, is rather an exercise of linguistic logics. Roderick Chisholm, in “The Logical Form of Action Sentences, criticized an earlier article of Davidson, “The Logical Form of Action Sentences,” proposing a different theory. Davidson analyzes … Read More

Natural philosophy
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Natural philosophy, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is an expression that applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that reigned before the development of modern science. Traditionally allied with natural theology, it used to designate … Read More

Art and attention to the sensitive
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 (Paul Cézanne, The Card Players 1892-95) Art is not content to copy nature. However, he does not turn away from her, but goes back to the source. In Cézanne’s painting, Merleau-Ponty reminds us, it is never about color as a … Read More

Scientific methods
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The acquired knowledge can only be qualified as scientific if the scientificity of the obtaining process has been demonstrated. The “scientific method” (ancient Greek methodos, “pursuit, research, plan”) is “the set of reasoned processes to achieve a goal; this one … Read More

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