Moral philosophy
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Moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy, and more specifically of practical philosophy, the object of which is to put into practice morality itself based on ethical reasoning. It is a speculative philosophy that presents itself as a place of … Read More

Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy – Epistle to the Sorbonne
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To the deans and doctors of the Sacred Faculty of Theology of Paris Gentlemen, The reason which leads me to present you to this work is so excellent, and when you will know the design, I am afraid that you … Read More

Metaphysics
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(Beginning of Book Z of Metaphysics: Ens dicitur multipliciter (“The word being is said in several senses”) Latin manuscript (translated from the Greek) of the 14th century.) In philosophy, metaphysics refers to the knowledge of the world, of things or … Read More

Logic
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(Allegory of logic) The logic, from the Greek λογική / logikê, is a term derived from λόγος / lógos – meaning at the same time “reason”, “language”, and “reasoning” – is, in a first approach, the study of the formal … Read More

Philosophy of language
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(Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez (1657) “But the relationship between language and painting is an infinite relationship … They are irreducible to each other: we can say what we see, what we see never lodges in what we say, and … Read More

Philosophy of information
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Philosophy of information is a new field of research that explores the conceptual issues at the intersection of computational science, information technology, and philosophy. This is the philosophical domain concerned by: critical study of the conceptual nature and basic principles … Read More

Philosophy of mind
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(Drawing (1894) describing the concept of phrenology by Friedrich Eduard Bilz (1842-1922) published in Das neue Naturheilverfahren (“The New Treatment with Naturopathy”) in an edition drawn for the 75th anniversary of this concept.) The philosophy of mind is the philosophical … Read More

Buddhism
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(A statue of the Buddha in Vietnam) Buddhism is, according to the Western point of view, a religion (including a state religion) or a philosophy, or both, whose origins go back to India in the fifth century BC after the … Read More

Causality
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In philosophy, causality refers to the relationship of cause and effect. the cause, the correlate of the effect, is “what makes a thing do or act as it does”. This produces the effect; the causality is the “current relationship of … Read More

Hermeneutics
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Hermeneutics (from the Greek hermeneutikè, ἑρμηνευτική [τέχνη], art of interpreting, hermeneuein means first “to speak”, “to express” and the name of the Greek god Hermes, messenger of the gods and interpreter of their orders), is the theory of reading, explaining … Read More

Modern philosophy
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 (The city of Danzig (Gdansk) in the 17th century. In the modern era, the city concentrates activity and wealth, a painting by Wojciech Gerson (1865).) Modern philosophy means that which extends to what historians call the modern era (1492-1789). This … Read More

Anarchism
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(The circled A, symbol of the anarchism.) Anarchism is a current of political philosophy developed since the nineteenth century on a set of anti-authoritarian theories and practices of social equality. The term libertarian, often used as a synonym, is a … Read More

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