Ontology of Intelligence
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In intelligence, the ontological problem is related to the nature and characteristics of entities that threaten and are threatened. According to Eric Little and Galina Rogova, “[t]hreat is a very complex ontological item and, therefore, a proper threat ontology must … Read More

Epistemic Intelligence Communities. Counterintelligence
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Epistemic communities Epistemic communities are informal networks of knowledge-based experts who influence decision-makers in defining issues they face, identifying different solutions, and evaluating results. (Hsu and Hasmath 2017) Peter M. Haas defined the conceptual framework of an epistemic community as … Read More

Psychology of the film Solaris directed by Andrei Tarkovsky
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Tarkovski’s film is a drama of pain and partial recovery centered on the psychology of the Solaris station crew. Tarkovski wanted to address this way the deeply emotional and intellectual science-fantastic genre, considered by him to be superficial. The film … Read More

Knowledge Engineering and Intelligence Gathering
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A process of intelligence gathering begins when a user enters a query into the system. Several objects can match the result of a query with different degrees of relevance. Most systems estimate a numeric value about how well each object … Read More

Sculpting in Time, with Andrei Tarkovsky
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Tarkovsky opposed to the movie editing and considered that the basis of the art of cinematography (movie art) is the internal rhythm of images. He considers cinema as a representation of distinctive currents or time waves, transmitted in the film … Read More

Newton-Hooke controversy in the opinion of scientists
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A presentation of Hooke’s 1674 monograph introducing the idea of universal gravity was included in the Philosophical Transactions (Royal Society 1775) and subsequently several letters containing observations, including one of Huygens. But obviously, after the publication of Principia in 1687, … Read More

Support and trend of falsifiability
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Popper’s supporters argued that most criticism is based on an incomprehensible interpretation of his ideas. They argue that Popper should not be interpreted as meaning that falsifiability is a sufficient condition for the demarcation of science. Some passages seem to … Read More

Imre Lakatos, The methodology of scientific research programmes – An Overview
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Imre Lakatos (1922-1974) was one of the modern philosophers of science and mathematics. His main contribution to philosophy was the development of the concept of methodology of scientific research programmes and the use of this methodology in the rational reconstruction … Read More

Criticism of Falsifiability
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Thomas Kuhn criticized falsifiability because it characterized “the entire scientific enterprise in terms that apply only to its occasional revolutionary parts,” (Kuhn 1970) and it cannot be generalized. In Kuhn’s view, a delimitation criterion must refer to the functioning of … Read More

Falsification and refutation
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Dogmatic falsifiability refers to scientific statements considered individually. These can be falsified and, depending on the outcome, scientific theories can be considered falsifiable and accepted, refuted, or can be maintained by adding ad-hoc hypotheses: ” There is one important method … Read More

Lakatos on justificationism
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The methodology of scientific research programmes is an improvement of Popper’s demarcation criterion between science and non-science, a theory of scientific rationality. For Popper, a theory is scientific only if it is empirically falsifiable, that is, if it is possible … Read More

About God in Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley and Queries in Opticks
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Correspondence with Richard Bentley In Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley, Newton rejected the possibility of remote action, even though he accepted it in the Principia. On February 25, 1692/93, in the third letter addressed to Bentley, Newton wrote: “It is … Read More

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