Democracy
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(A map of the world showing the results of The Economist’s Democracy Index survey for 2017. ) Full democracies    9–10    8–8.9 Flawed democracies    7–7.9    6–6.9 Hybrid regimes    5–5.9    4–4.9 Authoritarian regimes    3–3.9    … Read More

Fine-tuned Universe – The Fine Tuning Argument
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 (The Discovery Institute’s Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture used banners based on The Creation of Adam from the Sistine Chapel. Later it used a less religious image, then was renamed the Center for Science and Culture.) In … Read More

Plato about climate change
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(Rhamnous, an ancient Greek city in Attica.) Plato, the Greek philosopher, describes the effect of local climate change in Attica in his Critias: “The land was the best in the world, and was therefore able in those days to support … Read More

Induction (Inductive reasoning)
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Induction is historically the name used to signify a kind of reasoning that proposes to look for general laws from the observation of particular facts, on a probabilistic basis. At present, high school geography curricula involve representative case studies of … Read More

Scientific methods
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(René Descartes, French philosopher, mathematician and physicist, actor of the scientific revolution, considered as the founder of modern philosophy.) The scientific method refers to the set of canons guiding or having to guide the production process of scientific knowledge, whether … Read More

Duty-based theories
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Duty-based morals establish the moral character of our actions on the concept of obligation. This type of morality is conceivable regardless of any consequences that may result from our actions. For example, according to Kant, one should not lie to … Read More

Can art be defined? Art and philosophy
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(Pompeii, House VII, 2, 6: Paquius Proculus and his wife, National Archaeological Museum of Naples, fresco of the first century.) Since at least antiquity, philosophy has questioned the nature of art. Plato in the Ion and Hippias Major or Aristotle … Read More

Philosophy of psychology
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The philosophy of psychology refers to questions about the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. Some of these questions are epistemological concerns of the methodology of psychological study. For example : What is the most appropriate method for psychology: mentalism, behaviorism, … Read More

Intelligent design argument
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The teleological argument (physico-theological argument, argument from design, or intelligent design argument) is the argument about the existence of God which is based on perceptible evidence of order, intention, design, or direction – or a combination of these – in … Read More

Reality
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The reality is the set of phenomena considered to actually exist. This concept designates what is physical, concrete, as opposed to what is imagined, dreamed or fictional. Although its use is initially philosophical, particularly in its ontological branch, it has … Read More

Philosophical and legal approaches of animals
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Animal rights are the legal wording of animal protection or animal liberation. They are based on the idea that the needs and interests of nonhuman animal species – feeding, moving, reproducing and avoiding suffering, for example – are sufficiently complex … Read More

Aesthetics in Middle Ages, Renaissance and XVII – XVIII centuries
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Middle Ages  (Teaching Boethius, manuscript of the Consolation of Philosophy, 1385.) The aesthetics of the Middle Ages take up the principles of Neoplatonism by relating them to the theological model of Christianity. It is considered then that in artistic creation … Read More

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