Aesthetics
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Aesthetics is a discipline of philosophy whose object is perceptions, senses, beauty (in nature or art), or exclusively that which relates to the concept of art. The aesthetic corresponds to the domain designated until the eighteenth century by “science of … Read More

Asian philosophies
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Indian philosophy (Early morning on the Ganges) We define classically two kinds of Indian philosophies: the āstika philosophies, which follow the Vedas (Hinduism …) and the nāstika philosophies that are Jainism, Buddhism and the Cārvāka, which reject them. For the … Read More

Happiness for Blaise Pascal and Spinoza
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Blaise Pascal (17th century) “All men seek to be happy. This is without exception, a few different ways they use it. (…) This is the reason for all the actions of all men. And yet, for so many years, no … Read More

History of medieval philosophy
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(Dialectic and rhetoric are among the seven liberal arts (illustration of Hortus Deliciarum, v. 1180).) The medieval philosophy of the West and the Middle East derive from the same current. It is the Muslim and Christian thinkers, then between Muslims … Read More

Happiness for Epicurus
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Happiness is a durable state of fullness, satisfaction or serenity, a pleasant and balanced state of mind and body, from which suffering, stress, worry and trouble are absent. Happiness is not only a passing state of pleasure, of joy, it … Read More

The concept in analytic philosophy
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In the twentieth century, Frege and Carnap, opposed to “psychologism”, preferred to consider concepts as abstract entities. It is not obvious, however, that a concept is identified with the meaning of a term, the sense of intension or denotation: Hilary … Read More

Philosophy of perception – Realistic theories
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(Mechanism of the vision according to a drawing of René Descartes.) The philosophy of perception is a branch of the philosophy of the mind and philosophy of knowledge that attempts to understand the nature of perceptual experiences and how they … Read More

Epistemology
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Epistemology can designate two concepts: in the continental philosophy: the critical study of science and scientific knowledge; in the Anglo-Saxon philosophy: the study of knowledge in general. This article mainly presents the perspective of epistemology as a study of science … Read More

Ancient philosophy
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Greek period  (Famous representation of the different schools of antiquity: it is recognized, in center, Plato pointing the finger of heaven (referring to his theory of Ideas) and Aristotle showing opposed the land (referring to his desire to anchor knowledge … Read More

Contemporary philosophy
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Contemporary philosophy is an expression used to designate the different philosophical currents born of modernity. Contemporary philosophy has germinated in the nineteenth century, from the Emmanuel Kant’s works. He had elaborated a theory of knowledge based on the categories of … Read More

Descartes: Discourse on the Method (1)
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Common sense is the best shared thing in the world; for every one thinks that he is so well provided that even those who are the most difficult to satisfy in anything else are not in the habit of desiring … Read More

The challenge of philosophy
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 (The philosopher, by Rembrandt.) The challenge of philosophy is considerable because it deals with central questions, such as, for example, the meaning of life, the possible history of the soul after death, the possible and desirable political organization, the place … Read More

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