Main Indian philosophies
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Nyâya The Nyâya school of philosophical speculation is based on a text called Nyâya Sûtra. It was composed by Gautama Aksapada (not to be confused with Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism), around the fourth or fifth century BC. The … Read More

Ontology
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Ontology in its most general sense questions the meaning of the word “to be”. “What is being?”, considered as an inaugural question, that is to say, first in time and first in the order of knowledge, is that of the … Read More

Philosophical debates on knowledge
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Positivism vs. Constructivism Some epistemological postures consider the object “knowledge” in a radically different way: the positivist posture considers the truth value of propositional knowledge representing reality as independent of the will of men, without metaphysical content and where a … Read More

Foundationist definition of knowledge
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Aristotle (Seconds Analytics), Descartes (Rules for the Direction of Mind), Locke (Essay on the Human Understanding), Hume (Treatise on the Human Understanding), Kant (Criticism of Pure Reason), and Russell (Problems of philosophy, 1912, Theory of knowledge, 1913, Our knowledge of … Read More

Philosophy of religion
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The philosophy of religion is the part of philosophy that asks the question of what a religion is. According to the concept of religion which is thus posed and according to the fundamental question which one poses on the religion, … Read More

Descartes: Discourse on the Method (2-1)
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I was then in Germany, where the occasion of the wars, which are not yet finished, had called me; and as I was returning from the coronation of the Emperor to the army, the commencement of the winter stopped me … Read More

Political philosophy
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(Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of “The School of Athens”, a fresco by Raphael. Plato’s “Republic“, and Aristotle’s “Politics“ secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers.) Political philosophy is a branch … Read More

Theory of knowledge
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(Nature unveiling itself to Science Allegory of Louis-Ernest Barrias.) The theory of knowledge has been assimilated to the philosophy of knowledge and to gnoseology. When the theory of knowledge is assimilated to the philosophy of knowledge, it is part of … Read More

Action theory
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The philosophy of action is a branch of philosophy that deals with problems relating to human action, its nature, its motivations and intentionality. It is undoubtedly one of the most important branches in the contemporary philosophical debate even if it … Read More

Moral philosophy
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Moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy, and more specifically of practical philosophy, the object of which is to put into practice morality itself based on ethical reasoning. It is a speculative philosophy that presents itself as a place of … Read More

Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy – Epistle to the Sorbonne
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To the deans and doctors of the Sacred Faculty of Theology of Paris Gentlemen, The reason which leads me to present you to this work is so excellent, and when you will know the design, I am afraid that you … Read More

Metaphysics
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(Beginning of Book Z of Metaphysics: Ens dicitur multipliciter (“The word being is said in several senses”) Latin manuscript (translated from the Greek) of the 14th century.) In philosophy, metaphysics refers to the knowledge of the world, of things or … Read More

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