Lakatos on Dogmatic Falsificationism
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Dogmatic (naturalist) falsificationism accepts the falsifiability of all scientific theories without qualification but preserves an infallible empirical basis. He is strictly empiric without being inductivist: he denies the fact that certainty of the empirical basis can be conveyed to theories. … Read More

Analogy of intelligence with other disciplines
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Science Intelligence analysis has many important epistemological resemblances with science (problem solving, discovery, skillful use of tools, knowledge verification) and is more interested in a posteriori than a priori knowledge, (Agrell and Treverton 2015) on how or the basis on … Read More

Intelligence Methodologies
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Methodology, in intelligence, consists of the methods used to make decisions about threats, especially in the intelligence analysis discipline. The enormous amount of information collected by intelligence agencies often puts them in the inability to analyze them all. According to … Read More

Polanyi’s tacit knowledge applied in intelligence
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Owen Ormerod has developed a theory that Michael Polanyi’s opinion on science can contribute to understanding the process and the “product” of intelligence analysis. (Ormerod 2018) Michael Polanyi’s arguments about the activities of scientists are transferable in the field of … Read More

Support and trend of falsifiability
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Popper’s supporters argued that most criticism is based on an incomprehensible interpretation of his ideas. They argue that Popper should not be interpreted as meaning that falsifiability is a sufficient condition for the demarcation of science. Some passages seem to … Read More

Imre Lakatos, The methodology of scientific research programmes – An Overview
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Imre Lakatos (1922-1974) was one of the modern philosophers of science and mathematics. His main contribution to philosophy was the development of the concept of methodology of scientific research programmes and the use of this methodology in the rational reconstruction … Read More

Criticism of Falsifiability
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Thomas Kuhn criticized falsifiability because it characterized “the entire scientific enterprise in terms that apply only to its occasional revolutionary parts,” (Kuhn 1970) and it cannot be generalized. In Kuhn’s view, a delimitation criterion must refer to the functioning of … Read More

Falsification and refutation
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Dogmatic falsifiability refers to scientific statements considered individually. These can be falsified and, depending on the outcome, scientific theories can be considered falsifiable and accepted, refuted, or can be maintained by adding ad-hoc hypotheses: ” There is one important method … Read More

Lakatos on justificationism
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The methodology of scientific research programmes is an improvement of Popper’s demarcation criterion between science and non-science, a theory of scientific rationality. For Popper, a theory is scientific only if it is empirically falsifiable, that is, if it is possible … Read More