Relationship between perception and knowledge – Conceptualism
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According to some analyzes, the intentional content of perception is entirely conceptual. One can not perceive an object without mobilizing some concept of that object and without forming, or being willing to form, any belief about it. (The Müller-Lyer illusion … Read More

Non-realistic theories in the philosophy of perception
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Phenomenalism opposes the realism of perception by considering that perception gives us access only to complexes of sensitive data, which do not exist independently of the fact of being or being able to be perceived. The classical origin of phenomenalism … Read More

Dualistic solutions in philosophy of mind
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Dualism consists of a set of philosophical positions about the relationship between mind and matter (or body). The dualism began with the assertion that mental phenomena are, in some respects, other than physical. One of the earliest known formulations of … Read More

Foundationist definition of knowledge
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Aristotle (Seconds Analytics), Descartes (Rules for the Direction of Mind), Locke (Essay on the Human Understanding), Hume (Treatise on the Human Understanding), Kant (Criticism of Pure Reason), and Russell (Problems of philosophy, 1912, Theory of knowledge, 1913, Our knowledge of … Read More

Political philosophy
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(Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of “The School of Athens”, a fresco by Raphael. Plato’s “Republic“, and Aristotle’s “Politics“ secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers.) Political philosophy is a branch … Read More

Causality
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In philosophy, causality refers to the relationship of cause and effect. the cause, the correlate of the effect, is “what makes a thing do or act as it does”. This produces the effect; the causality is the “current relationship of … Read More

The concept in postmodern philosophy
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There are several conceptions of the status of existence of the concept. This status is central to all philosophy, not only in the field of knowledge (how concepts are formed?, does the concept indicate an essence?, etc.), but also in … Read More

The concept of concept in philosophy
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A concept is a sum of thought, which, when linked to other sum of thought, can form a proposition. A concept is a signifier which can be expressed by means of a signifier (a word or a statement), and it … Read More