Aristotelianism
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(Aristotle, by Francesco Hayez) Aristotelianism is the name given to the doctrine derived from the works of Aristotle, from the Persian philosopher Avicenna and the Andalusian philosopher Averroes in particular, then gradually adopted in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by … Read More

Confucianism
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(Confucius, from a Chinese bronze) Confucianism, Rújiā “school of the literati” then Rúxué “teaching of the literati”, is one of the greatest philosophical, moral, political and to a lesser extent religious schools of China. It developed over two millennia from … Read More

The history of contemporary philosophy
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 (A. von Menzel, The iron rolling mill (1875). The Industrial Revolution brings about a change in living conditions, which reflects on philosophical, economic and political thought.) The philosophy of the nineteenth century is divided into different directions. It includes Romantic … Read More

Western philosophy
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 (School of Athens: Epicurus, Averroes, Pythagoras Parmenides, Socrates, by Raphael) Western philosophy refers to philosophical thought and its elaboration in the West, thus distinguishing itself from Eastern philosophy or other diverse tendencies observed among many indigenous peoples. The term is … Read More

Main Indian philosophies
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Nyâya The Nyâya school of philosophical speculation is based on a text called Nyâya Sûtra. It was composed by Gautama Aksapada (not to be confused with Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism), around the fourth or fifth century BC. The … Read More

Buddhism
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(A statue of the Buddha in Vietnam) Buddhism is, according to the Western point of view, a religion (including a state religion) or a philosophy, or both, whose origins go back to India in the fifth century BC after the … Read More

Anarchism
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(The circled A, symbol of the anarchism.) Anarchism is a current of political philosophy developed since the nineteenth century on a set of anti-authoritarian theories and practices of social equality. The term libertarian, often used as a synonym, is a … Read More

Formalism and natural language in analytic philosophy
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Tradition, doctrine and method The definition of analytic philosophy remains ambiguous to the point that it has been argued that it is “preferable to speak of analytic philosophies in the plural.” It can be clarified by distinguishing three uses of … Read More