Civil disobedience

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(Sebastian Loscher: Allegory of Justice (1536)) Civil disobedience is the public and accepted refusal to submit to a law, regulation, organization or power deemed unfair by those who challenge it, while making this refusal a peaceful weapon of combat. The … Read More

Deterrence theory

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Deterrence is a theory that one can prevent someone from doing something by fear of potential consequences. (The USS Growler, one of two submarines designed to provide a nuclear deterrence using missile cruise with a 500-mile (800 km) range-placed on … Read More

Freedom (Liberty)

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(Liberty Enlightening the World, known as the Statue of Liberty, was donated to the US by France and is an artistic personification of liberty. ) Generally speaking, freedom, or liberty is a concept that designates the possibility of action or … Read More

Consequences of global warming in economy, health and geopolitics

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Access to the Arctic Ocean A decrease in Arctic polar ice has opened up new trade routes for ships, and would make undersea resources of oil or raw materials accessible, but with adverse consequences for many species, such as plankton … Read More

Representative democracy IS NOT democracy

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(House of Commons of the United Kingdom) Representative democracy ( indirect democracy, representative republic, representative government or psephocracy), is a political system in which a restricted assembly is recognized as having the right to represent a people, a nation or … Read More

Direct democracy

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(A Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 2006, Switzerland. ) Direct democracy is a political system in which citizens directly exercise power without the intermediary of representatives. Initially equivalent to the concept of democracy since … Read More

Democracy

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(A map of the world showing the results of The Economist’s Democracy Index survey for 2017. ) Full democracies    9–10    8–8.9 Flawed democracies    7–7.9    6–6.9 Hybrid regimes    5–5.9    4–4.9 Authoritarian regimes    3–3.9    … Read More