Henri Poincaré, The Moral Union

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(This allocution was delivered by Henri Poincaré at the inaugural meeting of the French League of Moral Education on June 26, 1912, three weeks before his death. This is the last time he has spoken in public.) Today’s Assembly brings … Read More

Henri Poincaré, Morality and Science

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In the last half of the nineteenth century, we often dreamed of creating a scientific morality. It was not enough to boast the educative virtue of science, the advantages which the human soul derives for its own perfecting of the … Read More

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, by Immanuel Kant

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(Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (German: Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals), by Immanuel Kant … Read More

Christian ethics

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The Christian ethics (theological ethics) is one of the basic disciplines of theology. It deals with the reflection of the moral good in the context of Christian theology. According to the older definition, Christian ethics is “the science of the … Read More

Emotivism

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Emotivism is the meta-ethical (about ethics) view that moral judgments are expressions of the emotions or attitudes of the speaker who makes these judgments. “Bad” refers to a negative emotion associated with an attitude of disapproval, while “good” refers to … Read More

Naturalism

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In philosophy, naturalism is the conception that everything that exists – objects and events – can be explained by natural causes or principles. Extending all forms of transcendence, naturalism conceives of philosophical activity as an extension of scientific activity. Naturalism … Read More

Applied ethics

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(Aerial view of the Central Intelligence Agency headquarters, Langley, Virginia.) Applied ethics is a branch of ethics that applies its principles to a particular set of circumstances and practices, taking into account the general criteria of ethics. Applied ethics can … Read More

Virtue ethics

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The ethics of virtue is an expression used in contemporary moral philosophy, in order to distinguish it from two other major currents of normative ethics: deontological ethics, which insists on the moral duty proper to action, and consequentialism, which insists … Read More

Consequentialism

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Consequentialism is part of the teleological ethics and constitutes the set of moral theories which maintain that it is the consequences of a given action which must constitute the basis of any moral judgment of the said action. Thus, from … Read More

Duty-based theories

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Duty-based morals establish the moral character of our actions on the concept of obligation. This type of morality is conceivable regardless of any consequences that may result from our actions. For example, according to Kant, one should not lie to … Read More