Newton’s action at a distance – Different views
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Different authors have attempted to clarify the aspects of remote action and God’s involvement on the basis of textual investigations, mainly from the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, (Newton, 1999b) Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley (1692/93), (Bentley 1693) and Queries … Read More

Time Travel
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Time travel involves traveling in a time different from the present, in the past or in the future, basically without a space travel with reference to a local coordinate system. Time travel can be made by a material body that … Read More

History of physics in prehistory and antiquity
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The history of physics traces the origin and evolution of currents of thought and knowledge in the physical sciences. Themes Several parallel issues overlap over the centuries: determinism and probabilistic physics; Laplace has scarcely conceived the project of a total … Read More

Nature of scientific concepts
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 (Naïve realism argues we perceive the world directly) Science is concerned both by the utterance of hypotheses concerning the nature of the world, and the verification of these theories as adequate to reality according to an experimental method, which differs … Read More

Scientific laws
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A scientific law is a scientific proposition that affirms a constant relationship between two or more variables or factors, each of which represents a property or measurement of specific systems. It is also defined as a constant and invariable rule and norm of things, arising from its first cause or its qualities and conditions. It … Read More

Natural philosophy
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Natural philosophy, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is an expression that applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that reigned before the development of modern science. Traditionally allied with natural theology, it used to designate … Read More

Scientific methods
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The acquired knowledge can only be qualified as scientific if the scientificity of the obtaining process has been demonstrated. The “scientific method” (ancient Greek methodos, “pursuit, research, plan”) is “the set of reasoned processes to achieve a goal; this one … Read More

Scientific methods within the context of justification
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Hans Reichenbach, who was close to logical positivism, distinguished between the context of justification and the context of discovery. The context of discovery refers to the process that results in proposing a theoretical result, whereas the context of justification concerns … Read More

Philosophy of science
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Philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical underpinnings, systems and implications of science, whether natural sciences (physics, biology, etc.) or social sciences (psychology, economics , etc.). The philosophy of science is closer to epistemology and … Read More

Scientism
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Scientism is a nineteenth century vision of the world in which experimental science takes precedence over older forms of reference – religious revelation, superstitions, tradition, and customs – to interpret the world. In the words of Ernest Renan (1823-1892) scientism … Read More

Induction (Inductive reasoning)
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Induction is historically the name used to signify a kind of reasoning that proposes to look for general laws from the observation of particular facts, on a probabilistic basis. At present, high school geography curricula involve representative case studies of … Read More

Scientific methods
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(René Descartes, French philosopher, mathematician and physicist, actor of the scientific revolution, considered as the founder of modern philosophy.) The scientific method refers to the set of canons guiding or having to guide the production process of scientific knowledge, whether … Read More