Henri Poincaré, The evolution of laws (7)
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Let us now turn to another point of view. The laws that direct observation gives us are never more than results. Take for example the law of Mariotte. For most physicists, this is only a consequence of the kinetic theory … Read More

Henri Poincaré, The evolution of laws (6)
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And if humanity were to last longer than we have supposed, long enough to see the laws evolve before its eyes? Or even if it came to acquire instruments delicate enough that this variation, slow as it is, becomes sensitive … Read More

Philosophy of physics
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(The wave-particle duality, in which we can see how the same phenomenon can be perceived in two different ways, was one of the philosophical problems posed by quantum mechanics.) The philosophy of physics refers to the set of philosophical reflections … Read More

Henri Poincaré, The evolution of laws (5)
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I raised this question incidentally only; it deserves to be thought about; but I do not want to be dragged too far from my subject. Is it possible that the contradictions of geologists never lead scientists to conclude the evolution … Read More

Henri Poincaré, The evolution of laws (4)
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Let me digress here. We have just seen that the geologist possesses an instrument which the mathematician misses and which enables him to conclude from the present to the past. Why does the same instrument not allow us to conclude … Read More

Henri Poincaré, The evolution of laws (3)
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At this point, we can oppose an argument of fact. “You say that in seeking to ascend, thanks to the knowledge of the laws, from the present to the past, one will never meet with a contradiction, and yet the … Read More

Henri Poincaré, The evolution of laws (2)
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But, it will be said, could it not be that the application of the preceding process would lead to a contradiction, or, if one wishes, that our differential equations admit no solution? Since the hypothesis of the immutability of laws, … Read More

Henri Poincaré: The evolution of laws (1)
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Mr. Boutroux, in his work on the contingency of the laws of nature, wondered if natural laws are not likely to change, if while the world is changing continuously, the laws themselves, that is to say to say the rules … Read More

Newton-Hooke controversy in the opinion of scientists
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A presentation of Hooke’s 1674 monograph introducing the idea of universal gravity was included in the Philosophical Transactions (Royal Society 1775) and subsequently several letters containing observations, including one of Huygens. But obviously, after the publication of Principia in 1687, … Read More

Support and trend of falsifiability
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Popper’s supporters argued that most criticism is based on an incomprehensible interpretation of his ideas. They argue that Popper should not be interpreted as meaning that falsifiability is a sufficient condition for the demarcation of science. Some passages seem to … Read More

Imre Lakatos, The methodology of scientific research programmes – An Overview
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Imre Lakatos (1922-1974) was one of the modern philosophers of science and mathematics. His main contribution to philosophy was the development of the concept of methodology of scientific research programmes and the use of this methodology in the rational reconstruction … Read More

Criticism of Falsifiability
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Thomas Kuhn criticized falsifiability because it characterized “the entire scientific enterprise in terms that apply only to its occasional revolutionary parts,” (Kuhn 1970) and it cannot be generalized. In Kuhn’s view, a delimitation criterion must refer to the functioning of … Read More

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