Scientific methods
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The acquired knowledge can only be qualified as scientific if the scientificity of the obtaining process has been demonstrated. The “scientific method” (ancient Greek methodos, “pursuit, research, plan”) is “the set of reasoned processes to achieve a goal; this one … Read More

Scientific methods within the context of justification
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Hans Reichenbach, who was close to logical positivism, distinguished between the context of justification and the context of discovery. The context of discovery refers to the process that results in proposing a theoretical result, whereas the context of justification concerns … Read More

Philosophy of science
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Philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical underpinnings, systems and implications of science, whether natural sciences (physics, biology, etc.) or social sciences (psychology, economics , etc.). The philosophy of science is closer to epistemology and … Read More

Scientism
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Scientism is a nineteenth century vision of the world in which experimental science takes precedence over older forms of reference – religious revelation, superstitions, tradition, and customs – to interpret the world. In the words of Ernest Renan (1823-1892) scientism … Read More

Induction (Inductive reasoning)
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Induction is historically the name used to signify a kind of reasoning that proposes to look for general laws from the observation of particular facts, on a probabilistic basis. At present, high school geography curricula involve representative case studies of … Read More

Scientific methods
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(René Descartes, French philosopher, mathematician and physicist, actor of the scientific revolution, considered as the founder of modern philosophy.) The scientific method refers to the set of canons guiding or having to guide the production process of scientific knowledge, whether … Read More