Emotional intelligence (EI) is a set of abilities for responses to events that constitute emotions. (Mayer și Salovey 1997) (Salovey și Mayer 2016) By integrating intelligence with emotion one can determine “at least some ‘right’ answers as to feelings” (Mayer și Salovey 1997, 9) to distinguish individuals according to EI in each cultural context. (Morgan, Izard, și King 2010) Steve Jobs’s biographer, Walter Isaacson, attributed some of Jobs’s success in leading Apple to its ability to identify, analyze and control emotions: “He knew, intuitively, how to create products that pleased, interfaces that were friendly, and marketing messages that were enticing.” (Isaacson 2011) It turns out that not the traditional sense of intelligence made Jobs a leader in his industry. He actually understood people better than his competitors, using this understanding to design Apple products.
Emotional intelligence is the ability of individuals to recognize their own and others’ emotions, to discern between different feelings and to label them correctly, using emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and to manage and adjust emotions to adapt to the environment or to achieve their own goals.
There are several models that aim to measure EI levels. Goleman’s original model is a mixed model that combines abilities with traits. (D. Goleman 1998) A trait model was developed by Konstantinos V. Petrides in 2001 (Petrides și Furnham 2001) with a focus on self-knowledge, and an ability model was developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer in 2004 focusing on social relationship. (Mayer, Salovey, și Caruso 2004)
It has been found, without being scientifically proven, that people with high EI have higher mental health, better work performance and leadership abilities. Goleman indicated that EI represented 67% of the abilities required for performance as leaders and counted twice as much as technical expertise or IQ. (Daniel Goleman 1998)
Darwin emphasized the importance of emotional expression for survival. In the 20th century, researchers began to realize the importance of non-cognitive aspects for intelligence. (Darwin și Prodger 1998) Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) distinguished “three types of actions”: (i) technical action (how to manage objects), (ii) pragmatic action (how to deal with people) and (iii) ethical action (how to handle approach of moral values), (Kant, Walker, și Meredith 2008) transferred by Müller-Merbach to the level of intelligence. (Müller-Merbach 2007) The distinction between technical, pragmatic and ethical action helps to make agents fully aware of their responsibility. According to Kant, these actions correspond to the hypothetical imperative subordinate to the categorical imperatives. There is a hierarchy between the three types of actions and the corresponding imperatives. The problematic and the affirmative imperative are hypothetical in that they are subordinate to the categorical imperative. According to Russell, the hypothetical imperative states how to act according to purpose, as opposed to the categorical imperatives that state the necessity of actions without regard to any purpose; thus the categorical imperative “act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a general natural law.” (Russell 1967, 683)
In 1920, E. L. Thorndike, used the term social intelligence in human relations, proposing several types of intelligence. In 1940, David Wechsler, emphasized the importance of affective, personal and social factors in predicting one’s ability to succeed in life.
The term “emotional intelligence” first appeared in a 1964 work by Michael Beldoch, (Davitz și Beldoch 1964) and in B. Leuner’s 1966 work entitled “Emotional intelligence and emancipation” in the Practice of child psychology and child psychiatry. (Leuner 1966) In 1983, Howard Gardner introduced the idea of multiple, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences in Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. (Gardner 1983) The term reappeared in Wayne Payne’s PhD thesis, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence in 1985. (Payne 1985)
The first use of the term “EQ” (Emotional Quotient) was in an article by Keith Beasley in 1987 in the British magazine Mensa. (Beasley 1987) In 1989, Stanley Greenspan presented a model describing EI, followed by another by Peter Salovey and John Mayer published the following year. (Salovey și Mayer 2016)
Psychologists John Mayer and Peter Salovey introduced the concept of emotional intelligence as “the ability to monitor one’s own and other people’s emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior.” (Mayer și Salovey 1993) The term became popular with the publication of Goleman’s book: Emotional Intelligence – Why it can matter more than IQ. (Daniel Goleman 1996) In 1996, Reuven Bar-On developed the first validated scientific measurement of emotional intelligence, with a test covering five areas: intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management and general disposition. (Bar-On 2004) The distinction between the emotional intelligence of the traits and the emotional intelligence of the abilities was introduced in 2000. (Petrides și Furnham 2000)
In the most general sense, emotional intelligence (IE) refers to the ability to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and in others. (Daniel Goleman 2002)
The relationship between emotional intelligence and personality has been considered in several models of emotional intelligence, such as the mixed models of Bar-On and Goleman. In these models, the components of emotional intelligence are like those of personality theory. (Mayer, Salovey, și Caruso 2000) This overlap is evident in empirical comparisons of constructs. (Brackett și Mayer 2003) (Sala 2002) Even in Mayer and Salovey’s model, significant empirical correlations with personality can be highlighted. Also, alexithymia is defined by four key characteristics: difficulty in identifying the feeling and distinguishing between feelings and bodily sensations of emotional arousal; difficulty in describing feelings towards other people; restricted imaginary processes highlighted by a lack of fantasy; and a stimulus-oriented, externally-oriented cognitive style that is based on external cues and signals rather than internal cues. Although the features of alexithymia show the construction to be a type of psychiatric diagnosis or diagnostic category, it is important to emphasize that there is none. Instead, it is a complex mixture of personality traits, which remains stable over time, even after stress or depression has subsided. (Taylor și Bagby 2000) Researchers have pointed out an inverse association between alexithymia constructs and emotional intelligence. (Schutte et al. 1998) Researchers such as Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner argue that IQ tests measure only a limited aspect of human intellectual capacity, and they depend on culture.
There are a multitude of definitions of emotional intelligence:
“The ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.” (Salovey și Mayer 2016)
“An array of non-cognitive (emotional and social) capabilities, competencies and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.” (Bar-On 2004)
“The capacities to create optimal results in your relationships with yourself and others.” (Six Seconds 2010)
“Emotional intelligence is the set of abilities that we like to think of as being on the other side of the report card from the academic skills.” (Elias 2001)
“The ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional meanings, and to reflectively regulate emotions in ways that promote emotional and intellectual growth.”, (Mayer, Salovey, și Caruso 2004) revised definition
“The mental ability we are born with which gives our emotional sensitivity and potential for emotional management skills that help us maximize our long-term health, happiness and survival.” (Hein 2005)
“Knowing how to separate healthy from unhealthy feelings and how to turn negative feelings into positive ones.” (Hein 2005)
“Emotional intelligence is the innate potential to feel, use, communicate, recognize, remember, learn from, manage, understand and explain emotions.” (Stock 2008)
“Emotional intelligence is your ability to recognize and understand emotions in yourself and others, and your ability to use this awareness to manage your behavior and relationships.” (Bradberry, Greaves, și Lencioni 2009)
The advantages of emotional intelligence: (Tripathy 2018)
- Improves relationships with people
- Improves communication with people
- Improves empathy skills
- By acting with integrity, it helps you to gain the respect of others
- Improves career prospects
- Safer management of change
- Increases the pleasure of work
- Makes you feel confident and positive in attitude
- Reduces stress level
- Increases creativity
- Helps you learn from mistakes.
EI influences a lot of factors, such as: (Tripathy 2018)
- Motivation and creativity
- Decision making
- Personal development
In Emotional Intelligence in Organizations, Stéphane Côté classifies EI into several branches, with the specific abilities of each branch and the measurement of these abilities, as follows: (Côté 2014)
- Sequence and expression of emotions
- The ability to identify the emotions that others feel, (Elfenbein și Eisenkraft 2010) also called empathic capacity, (Côté et al. 2011) the ability to recognize emotions (Rubin, Munz, și Bommer 2005) and the nonverbal reception capacity. (Buck et al. 1980)
- The ability to detect the authenticity of the emotional expressions of others. (Groth, Hennig-Thurau, și Walsh 2009) (Mayer și Salovey 1997)
- The ability to evaluate one’s own emotions. (Salovey și Mayer 2016)
- The ability to express clearly the emotions of others. (Buck et al. 1980) (Salovey și Mayer 2016) (Zuckerman et al. 1976)
- Using emotions (Salovey și Mayer 2016)
- Knowledge of the systematic effects of emotions on cognitive processes. (Fine et al. 2003) (Morgan, Izard, și King 2010) (Salovey și Mayer 2016)
- The ability to harness emotions to guide cognitive activities and solve problems.(Mayer și Salovey 1997, 12)
- Understanding emotions
- The ability to understand emotional language. (Fine et al. 2003) (Mayer și Salovey 1997)
- The ability to analyze cause and effect relationships between events and emotions. (Mayer și Salovey 1997) (Morgan, Izard, și King 2010)
- The ability to understand how basic emotions combine to form complex emotions (Mayer și Salovey 1997, 13)
- Emotion control (Côté și Hideg 2011)
- The ability to set emotion regulation goals. (Mayer și Salovey 1997)
- The ability to select strategies to regulate emotions. (Côté și Hideg 2011)
- The ability to implement strategies to regulate emotions. (Côté, Gyurak, și Levenson 2010) (Sheppes et al. 2014)
According to an article in the Annual Psychology journal, (Mayer, Roberts, și Barsade 2007) emotional intelligence is positively correlated with:
- Better social relations for children
- Better social relationships for adults
- Strong emotionally intelligent individuals are perceived more positively by others
- Better family and intimate relationships
- Better academic activity
- Better social relations during performance in the workplace and in negotiations
- Better psychological well-being
- Allows self-compassion
For most specialists, knowledge or cognitive intelligence may not be the only predictor of success. (Dulewicz și Higgs 2000) Boyatzis and Saatcioglu (R. E. Boyatzis și Saatcioglu 2008) have shown that the ability to predict a leader’s performance depends on a series of competencies that can be grouped into three categories: (Howard și Bray 1988)
- Cognitive intelligence competences: thinking systems
- Emotional intelligence competences (intrapersonal abilities): the ability to adapt
- Social intelligence competences (interpersonal abilities): social networking. (Tovar 2013)
Competence was initially defined as the ability of individuals to respond to the demands of their environment, offering satisfaction or a sense of effectiveness. (White 1959) Penrose suggested that the efficiency of a company increases in the case of distinctive competences. (Nordhaug și Gr⊘nhaug 1994, 91) McClelland stated that these abilities can be learned. (McClelland 1973) Boyatzis defined the term “competence” as “an individual’s underlying characteristic causally related with an effective or superior performance,” (Gunz 1983) referring to the job requirements and the organizational context. Spencer and Spencer took up Boyatzis’ idea of defining competence as “an individual’s underlying characteristic causally related with an effective or superior performance in reference to a criteria”. (Spencer Jr. și Spencer 1993) Levy-Leboyer defined competencies as “codes of conduct that some people manage better than others and make them effective in a given situation.” (Lévy-Leboyer 1997, 13) Beyond competencies, desire is also important. to use their own talent. (R. Boyatzis și McKee 2006)
Descartes said that “it is impossible for the soul to feel a passion without that passion being truly as one feels it,” noting that “those that are most agitated by their passions are not those who know them best.” (Descartes 1989) (Daniel Goleman 2002) (Mayer și Geher 1996) Emotions are both the cause and the subject of many failures of self-knowledge. Many are lost through self-delusion. (Fingarette 1969) (Mele 1992) Self-deception involves the failure of self-knowledge. There are certain underlying neurological processes for deception. (Hirstein 2005) Scarantino and de Sousa highlight three distinct sources of self-deception that depend on emotions: (Scarantino și de Sousa 2018)
- The connection of emotion with bodily changes
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