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London

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City_of_London_skyline_from_London_City_Hall_-_Oct_2008Coordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W
Region London
Ceremonial counties City and Greater London
Districts City and 32 boroughs
Settled by Romans as Londinium, c. 43 AD
Headquarters City Hall
Government
• Regional authority Greater London Authority
• Regional assembly London Assembly
• Mayor of London Boris Johnson
• UK Parliament 74 constituencies
*London Assembly 14 constituencies
*European Parliament London constituency
Area
• London 1,570 km2 (607 sq mi)
Elevation 24 m (79 ft)
Population
• London 8,173,194
• Density 5,206/km2 (13,466/sq mi)
• Urban 8,278,251
• Metro 13,709,000
• Demonym Londoner
Time zone GMT (UTC±0)
• Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Postcode areas E, EC, N, NW, SE, SW, W, WC, BR, CM, CR, DA, EN, HA, IG, KT, RM, SM, TN, TW, UB, WD
Area code(s) 020, 01322, 01689, 01708, 01737, 01895, 01923, 01959, 01992

London, south-east of Britain, is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. Long time the capital of the British Empire, it is always the political center and the seat of the Commonwealth. Founded 2000 years ago almost by the Romans (Londinium), London in the nineteenth century was the most populous city in the world. Now widely exceeded in this area many megacities, it remains a city of the first rank, because of its reach and its considerable economic power, mainly due to its status as the third global financial center.

Greater London consists of Inner London and Outer London. Inner London has an area of 624 square kilometers and has 2,985,700 inhabitants. Greater London has 7,512,400 inhabitants, called Londoners (English: Londoners). It performs 19% of the gross domestic product of the United Kingdom. The conurbation houses 8,278,251 inhabitants. According to different criteria can be assessed population of the metropolitan area, its area of direct influence, 12 or 14 millions. In Europe, only the cities of Moscow and Paris have similar demographic weight.

London is dynamic and very diverse in terms of culture. It plays an important role in art and fashion. It is also a major tourist destination. It receives 27 million tourists per year and has four World Heritage Sites and many iconic landmarks: the Houses of Parliament, Tower Bridge, the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, but also institutions such as the British Museum or the National Gallery.

London names

The common name may refer to several London geographical areas or different administrative, so it can sometimes be confusing.

The most common use refers to Greater London, one of nine regional subdivisions of England, formed from the territory under the authority of the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. Greater London is considered a NUTS-1 region within the European Union. This set of approximately 1600 km ² for 7.5 millions inhabitants, is commonly referred to when speaking of the British capital. Greater London is divided into two areas; Inner London and Outer London. Both areas are considered NUTS-2 regions. However, the Greater London is not officially a city, whose status is strictly defined in the UK, is awarded to a city by the British monarch on specific criteria. Before its creation in 1965, the territory was part of Greater London counties of Kent, Middlesex, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire.

The City of London (abbreviated City ‘, or Square Mile in reference to an area of one square mile) located in the heart of Greater London, is the definition of historic London. This is where the modern city was born and is today the oldest district of the capital. It is also a full-fledged district with a special status. The city of Londres and the rest of Greater London are two different Lieutenancy areas.

London’s vast conglomeration can be described by the urban region of London, which corresponds to the zone occupied by the suburbs, and occupies an area roughly similar to the Greater London area but with a slightly larger population. Beyond the urban region is the urban area of London (London commuter belt or London Metropolitan Area) which includes the territories inhabited by people traveling daily (commuters) to work in London. The urban region of London has grown considerably during the Victorian era and again during the inter-war period. Expansion stopped in 1940 because of World War II and the policy known as the Green Belt and its area has not changed much since. The limits of the Metropolitan Police District and the area served by the London transport have changed over time but are now approximately to that of Greater London.

Other terms such as Inner London, Outer London, Central London, North London, South London, East London, East End of London, West London or West End of London are sometimes used to designate neighborhoods, statistical units or districts of London,

Unlike many other capitals, the status of “capital of the United Kingdom” for London has never been officially granted to the city by decree or by written charter. His current position is established by constitutional convention, London is the seat of British power. Its status as de facto capital actually a part of the unwritten constitution of the United Kingdom. The capital of England was moved to London from Winchester after the Norman Conquest.

It may be that the Romans marked the center of Londinium with the London Stone, still visible on Cannon Street13. The coordinates of the center of London (traditionally located in the Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall) are approximately 51 ° 30’29 “N 00 ° 07’29” W. Trafalgar Square has also become a central place of celebration and protest.

Image http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:City_of_London_skyline_from_London_City_Hall_-_Oct_2008.jpg

Materials translated and adapted by Nicolae Sfetcu from the Wikipedia under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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