Fiber optics is a fairly recent technology and leads to much higher capacities for transmitting computer data, being generally used between important nodes in the network or between networks.
While still relatively expensive and difficult to handle and connected, optical fiber is used for connecting LANs inside but found its perfect applicability as part of the infrastructure service providers where the performance and security requirements are higher than the pricing.
An optical fiber connection sections may have up to 4 km, which is another advantage over copper wires that are not covered more than a few hundred meters. UTP and FTP cables have coverage distance up to 100 meters distance to the guaranteed parameters of the network using this type of connection. It is used over longer distances, but there is no guarantee for optimal functioning. Also, the connection parameters can be dramatically perturbed by the “noise” that perceives cable as an antenna. You can use 75-ohm coaxial shielded cables, but in this case meet the same limitations attenuation data over the wire and cable noise may levy.
The optical fiber is based on a “wired” thinner than hair, made of a very pure glass. The data is transmitted in the form of pulses of light (beams of light) which is reflected by the inner walls, therefore goes to the other end.
The technology described above has an unexpected advantage. The entire length of the optical fiber can not be intercepted, because it emits electromagnetic radiation (electric current is not running through it, but the light) and may be cut (if the fiber is broken, communication is interrupted in its entirety). This makes it ideal for networks (or network segments) where the confidentiality of transfer is essential. Communication is interrupted during sectioning, but can be resumed as soon as the fiber rupture remedy, even using an adapter that can capture traffic over fiber.