Approaches and evolution in machine translation

|

Approaches Direct approach: word for word translation of the source text to the target text reformulation of the word order in the target text translated Interlanguage approach: construction of the interlingua representation of the source text construction of the target … Read More

Difficulties in machine translation

|

Ambiguities in the source language Lexical ambiguities: polysemy. In The Challenge of Languages, Claude Piron said that May 4, 1991 he asked a machine to translate in French: In such a case, you can make a very good case for … Read More

Translation process in machine translation

|

(Vauquois Triangle, model for the foundation of the machine translation) The translation process (in the human sense) can be divided into three phases: understanding: assimilation of the meaning conveyed by a text, the mean of a writer …; deverbalisation: forgetting … Read More

Well-formed output in machine translation

|

Is the output grammatical or well-formed in the target language? Using an interlingua should be helpful in this regard, because with a fixed interlingua one should be able to write a grammatical mapping to the target language from the interlingua. … Read More

BLEU

|

BLEU was one of the first metrics to report high correlation with human judgements of quality. The metric is currently one of the most popular in the field. The central idea behind the metric is that “the closer a machine … Read More

Automatic evaluation

|

In the context of this article, a metric will be understood as a measurement. A metric for the evaluation of machine translation output is a measurement of the quality of the output. The quality of a translation is inherently subjective, … Read More

Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee (ALPAC)

|

One of the constituent parts of the ALPAC report was a study comparing different levels of human translation with machine translation output, using human subjects as judges. The human judges were specially trained for the purpose. The evaluation study compared … Read More

Approaches in machine translation

|

Pyramid showing comparative depths of intermediary representation, interlingual machine translation at the peak, followed by transfer-based, then direct translation. Machine translation can use a method based on linguistic rules, which means that words will be translated in a linguistic way … Read More

Computer-assisted translation

|

Computer-assisted translation, computer-aided translation, or CAT is a form of translation wherein a human translator translates texts using computer software designed to support and facilitate the translation process. Computer-assisted translation is sometimes called machine-assisted, or machine-aided, translation. Computer-assisted translation and … Read More

Round-trip translation

|

Although this may intuitively be a good method of evaluation, it has been shown that round-trip translation is a, “poor predictor of quality”. The reason why it is such a poor predictor of quality is reasonably intuitive. When a round-trip … Read More

Translation process with machine translation

|

The translation process may be stated as: Decoding the meaning of the source text; and Re-encoding this meaning in the target language. Behind this ostensibly simple procedure lies a complex cognitive operation. To decode the meaning of the source text … Read More

Evaluation of machine translation

|

Various methods for the evaluation for machine translation have been employed. This article will focus on the evaluation of the output of machine translation, rather than on performance or usability evaluation. Before covering the large scale studies, a brief comment … Read More

1 2