Translation Equivalence
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The question of fidelity vs. transparency has also been formulated in terms of, respectively, “formal equivalence” and “dynamic equivalence.” The latter two expressions are associated with the translator Eugene Nida and were originally coined to describe ways of translating the … Read More

Consecutive and liaison interpreting
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The CI interpreter Patricia Stöcklin renders Klaus Bednarz’s speech to Garry Kasparov. The CI interpreter Patricia Stöcklintakes notes Garry Kasparov’s speech. The CI interpreter Patricia Stöcklin renders Garry Kasparov’s speech to the audience. Consecutive interpreting In consecutive interpreting, the interpreter … Read More

Interpreting versus translation
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Despite being used interchangeably, interpretation and translation are not synonymous, but refer, respectively, to the spoken and written transference of meaning between two languages. Interpreting occurs in real time, in the presence — physical, televised, or telephonic — of the … Read More

Round-trip translation
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Although this may intuitively be a good method of evaluation, it has been shown that round-trip translation is a, “poor predictor of quality”. The reason why it is such a poor predictor of quality is reasonably intuitive. When a round-trip … Read More

Translation process with machine translation
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The translation process may be stated as: Decoding the meaning of the source text; and Re-encoding this meaning in the target language. Behind this ostensibly simple procedure lies a complex cognitive operation. To decode the meaning of the source text … Read More

Interpreting
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Language interpreting or interpretation is the intellectual activity of facilitating oral and sign-language communication, either simultaneously or consecutively, between two or more users of different languages. Functionally, interpreting and interpretation are the descriptive words for the activity. In professional practice … Read More