- Vegetarian diet: when not consumed neither fish nor fowl. The reasons for following a vegetarian diet may be economic, religious, ideological, ethical (vegan), organic and health. There are different types of vegetarianism. Among them: diets in which is not consumed any product from an animal (strict vegetarians) and one in which not consumed animal products except coming from milk (lacto-vegetarianism), eggs (egg-vegetarianism) and / or honey (api-vegetarianism).
- Omnivorous diet: when you eat foods from plant and animal origin. This diet is the most common type for humans.
- Carnivorous diet: if foods of animal origin are predominant. It is not common for humans.
Other types of diets from the cultural point of view are the Western diet, the Mediterranean diet, the Asian diet, etc..
From a nutritional standpoint, the human diets may be:
- Basic diets: are diets in which no changes are made as to its nutrient composition or energy. These are diets for the healthy individuals.
- Therapeutic diets: are diets in which the composition is altered with nutrient or energy when there is a disease or pathological situation. These diets are subdivided into:
- Energy modified diets: a distribution is usually done in the amount of energy supplied in the diet (low calorie diets). This diets are applied in situations of overweight and obesity.
- Modified protein diets: can provide more protein than recommended for healthy people (protein diets), being indicated in situations of malnutrition (low weight, anorexia, etc..), or provide less quantity (LPDs) for a certain kidney diseases. A special type of these diets is the gluten-free diet for celiac disease specific.
- Modified-carbohydrate diets: when you restrict the amount of carbohydrates, it creates a situation of ketosis, as ketogenic diets. They are identified in some cases of epilepsy or morbidly obese. In other cases include foods by type of carbohydrate, so as to obtain low glycemic index diets.
- Dietary fiber modified diets: be with high fiber content (high fiber diet), indicated in those cases in which no reduction of bowel motility, or may be low fiber content (residue-free diet), identified to situations prior to surgery or a screening test.
- Modified mineral elements diets: in the event that significantly reduce the amount of sodium provided (either by removing or adding salt sodium foods), have the low sodium diet. It is prescribed in some kidney disease and certain heart diseases (hypertension).
A diet does not necessarily mean eating poorly, it is a nutritional regime. There are diets to lose or gain weight, and also to maintain a healthy weight.
Translated and adapted from Wikipedia under GNU Free Documentation License.